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Deshmukh A.B.,Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Pharmacy | Deshmukh A.B.,Bhagwant University | Patel J.K.,Nootan Pharmacy College | Prajapati A.R.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College | Mishra B.,Nootan Pharmacy College
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research | Year: 2012

Aim: Endothelial dysfunction appears to be a consistent finding in diabetic nephropathy. The study aimed to investigate the effect of cobalt chloride in the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction in uninephrectomized diabetic rats. Methods: We examined the effect of CoCl2 (10 mg/kg, i.p., OD = once a day) treatment on contractile responses to angiotensin II (10-10 to 10-6M) in an aortic preparation of control rats and uninephrectomized diabetic control rats. Blood glucose, plasma urea, creatinine, uric acid, aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitrate/nitrite (NOx), superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione levels were checked in the different groups. Results: A significant attenuation of the augmented responses to angiotensin II was observed in CoCl2-treated animals along with a fall in plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. A significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in aortic eNOS and NOx levels along with antioxidants levels were observed. Conclusion: Chronic hypoxia augments angiotensin II responses in the thoracic aorta of uninephrectomized diabetic control rats. CoCl2 attenuates these enhanced vascular responses with a significant decrease in blood glucose signifying stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor in the alleviation of endothelial dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Deshmukh A.B.,Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Pharmacy | Deshmukh A.B.,Bhagwant University | Patel J.K.,Nootan Pharmacy College | Prajapati A.R.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College | Shah S.,Western University of Health Sciences
Renal Failure | Year: 2012

Tissue hypoxia is a pathologic feature of many human diseases like cancer, myocardial infarction, stroke, and kidney disease. Convincing data from clinical studies in patients with chronic renal failure point to chronic hypoxia of kidneys as the end result of multiple processes and mechanisms. In acute as well as chronic diseases, tissue hypoxia not only implies a risk of energy deprivation but also induces regulatory mechanisms with profound influence on gene expression. Moreover, once established, accumulating evidence points to this chronic hypoxia as the central player along with final common pathway to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). An evolutionarily preserved oxygen-sensing mechanism enables cells to adapt and maintain homeostasis under hypoxic conditions by transcriptional activation of a host of genes mediating metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, energy conservation, erythropoiesis, in addition to cell survival. The endogenous oxygen-sensing mechanism incorporates hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that hub cellular response to hypoxia and comprises a family of oxygen-sensitive basic helixloophelix proteins that control the cellular transcriptional response to hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is thus a significant mediator of physiological responses to acute and chronic hypoxia. Since HIF is activated to suboptimal levels in pathogenic renal states, therapeutic activation holds a promising novel and effective approach to the treatment of ESRD. Current insights into the regulation of HIF may augment the understanding of the role of hypoxia in renal failure progression and may unbolt new options to improve hypoxia tolerance and induce nephroprotection. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Patel M.B.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College | Patel M.A.,Ckpithawalla Institute Of Pharmaceutical Science And Research | Shah G.B.,Kb Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research
Journal of Young Pharmacists | Year: 2010

The present study was undertaken to study the role of PAR-2 receptor activation in pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation. Inflammatory bowel disease was induced in Wistar albino rats by intrarectal administration of 2, 4, 6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS, 0.25 ml 120 mg/ml in 50% ethanol intrarectally, on 1st day only). Trypsin (500 g/kg, 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, intrarectal) was given from the same day up to 20 days. Various physical parameters including body weight, food and water intake were measured on 1 st and 20th days. At end of the experiment, colon weight and various histopathological indexes were assessed. The colon homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and % mast cell protection in mesentery were also measured. Trypsin at higher dose (5 mg/kg) showed the higher level of oxidative enzymes and lower level of protective enzymes as compared to the animals treated with only TNBS. Trypsin treatment produced significantly more mast cell degranulation. Finally in the histopathology, there was increased in severity of the disease in trypsin-treated animals. The role of PAR-2 (protease activated receptor-2) receptor in gut is pro-inflammatory and thus appears as a new potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel disease treatments. Source


Prajapati R.R.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College | Dave J.B.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College | Patel C.N.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2011

The Objective Of the current study was to develop a validated stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for alprazolam and propranolol in combined dosage form. The method was validated by subjecting the drugs to forced decomposition under hydrolysis, Oxidation, photolysis, and thermal stress conditions prescribed in international Conference on Harmonization. The drugs were successfully separated from major and minor degradation products on a reversed -phase C18 column by using phosphate buffer (PH 4)-ACN-Methanol (55+35+10%V/V/V) as the mobile phase with determination at 254 nm. The flow rate was 1 ml/min. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, Sensitivity, robustness. The response were linear over the range of 1-10 and 8-800 μg/ml for Alprazolam and Propranolol, respectively. The recoveries of both the drugs from a mixture of degradation products were in the range of 97-101%. The utility of the procedure was verified by its application to marketed formulations that were subjected to accelerated stability studies. The method distinctly separated the drugs and degradation products, even in actual sample. The products formed in marketed tablets were similar to those formed during stress studies. Source


Shah P.N.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College | Patel B.N.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College | Patel C.N.,Shree Sarvajanik Pharmacy College
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2011

Two simple, accurate, precise, reproducible, requiring no prior separation and economical procedures for simultaneous estimation of Enalapril Maleate and Lercanidipine HCl in Synthetic mixture form have been developed. First method employs formation and solving of simultaneous equation using 209 nm and 238 nm as two analytical wavelengths for both drugs in methanol. The second method is Q value analysis based on measurement of absorptivity at 216 nm (as an iso-absorptive point) and 209 nm. Enalapril Maleate and Lercanidipine HCL at their respective λ max 209 and 238 nm and at isoabsorptive point 216 nm shows linearity in a concentration range of 4-14 μg/mL. Recovery studies range from 98.15 to 101.14% for Enalapril Maleate and 98.77% to 101.1% for Lercanidipine HCl in case of simultaneous equation method and 98.29% to 100.23% for Enalapril Maleate and 99.85% to 101.16 for Lercanidipine HCL in case of Q - analysis method confirming the accuracy of the proposed method. The proposed method is recommended for routine analysis since it is rapid, simple, accurate and also sensitive and specific by no heating and no organic solvent extraction. © RJPT All right reserved. Source

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