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Maremanda N.G.,Deakin University | Maremanda N.G.,VIMTA Labs Ltd. and 5 Alexandria Knowledge Park | Roy K.,Deakin University | Kanwar R.K.,Deakin University | And 5 more authors.
Biomicrofluidics | Year: 2015

The role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in disease diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of the therapeutic efficacy, and clinical decision making is immense and has attracted tremendous focus in the last decade. We designed and fabricated simple, flat channel microfluidic devices polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS based) functionalized with locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified aptamers (targeting epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nucleolin expression) for quick and efficient capture of CTCs and cancer cells. With optimized flow rates (10 μl/min), it was revealed that the aptamer modified devices offered reusability for up to six times while retaining optimal capture efficiency (>90%) and specificity. High capture sensitivity (92%) and specificity (100%) was observed in whole blood samples spiked with Caco-2 cells (10-100 cells/ml). Analysis of blood samples obtained from 25 head and neck cancer patients on the EpCAM LNA aptamer functionalized chip revealed that an average count of 5 ± 3 CTCs/ml of blood were captured from 22/25 samples (88%). EpCAM intracellular domain (EpICD) immunohistochemistry on 9 oral squamous cell carcinomas showed the EpICD positivity in the tumor cells, confirming the EpCAM expression in CTCs from head and neck cancers. These microfluidic devices also maintained viability for in vitro culture and characterization. Use of LNA modified aptamers provided added benefits in terms of cost effectiveness due to increased reusability and sustainability of the devices. Our results present a robust, quick, and efficient CTC capture platform with the use of simple PDMS based devices that are easy to fabricate at low cost and have an immense potential in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic planning. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Ramshankar V.,Cancer Institute WIA | Soundara V.T.,Cancer Institute WIA | Shyamsundar V.,Cancer Institute WIA | Ramani P.,Shree Balaji Dental College | Krishnamurthy A.,Saveetha Dental College
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Recent epidemiological data have implicated human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in the pathogenesis of head and neck cancers, especially oropharyngeal cancers. Although, HPV has been detected in varied amounts in persons with oral dysplasia, leukoplakias and malignancies, its involvement in oral tongue carcinogenesis remains ambiguous. Materials and Methods: HPV DNA prevalence was assessed by PCR with formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections (n=167) of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients and the physical status of the HPV16 DNA was assessed by qPCR. Immunohistochemistry was conducted for p16 evaluation. Results: We found the HPV prevalence in tongue cancers to be 51.2%, HPV 16 being present in 85.2% of the positive cases. A notable finding was a very poor concordance between HPV 16 DNA and p16 IHC findings (kappa<0.2). Further molecular classification of patients based on HPV16 DNA prevalence and p16 overexpression showed that patients with tumours showing p16 overexpression had increased hazard of death (HR=2.395; p=0.005) and disease recurrence (HR=2.581; p=0.002) irrespective of their HPV 16 DNA status. Conclusions: Our study has brought out several key facets which can potentially redefine our understanding of tongue cancer tumorigenesis. It has emphatically shown p16 overexpression to be a single important prognostic variable in defining a high risk group and depicting a poorer prognosis, thus highlighting the need for its routine assessment in tongue cancers. Another significant finding was a very poor concordance between p16 expression and HPV infection suggesting that p16 expression should possibly not be used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in tongue cancers. Interestingly, the prognostic significance of p16 overexpression is different from that reported in oropharyngeal cancers. The mechanism of HPV independent p16 over expression in oral tongue cancers is possibly a distinct entity and needs to be further studied. Source

Anand N.,Shree Balaji Dental College | Suresh M.,Shree Balaji Dental College | Chandra Sekaran S.C.,Shree Balaji Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Background: Worldwide estimates of childhood obesity are as high as 43 million, and rates continue to increase each year. Childhood obesity is a growing problem in the present era and it causes serious consequences in the later years. In today's society, electronic media have been thoroughly integrated into the fabric of life, with television, video games, and computers being central to both work and play. While these media outlets can provide education and entertainment to children, many researches are concerned with the negative impact of electronic media on children. Objective: The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation, as to how oral hygiene and periodontal health were influenced by obesity and lifestyle factors, among pre-adolescents of ages of 9-12 years. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in schools located around Velachery, Chennai, India. A total of 426 children of age group of 9-12 years were selected. Information on their socio-economic, dietary, oral health statuses and time spent in leisure activities were assessed by using a questionnaire, followed by BMI estimation and these variables were correlated with their oral hygiene statuses. Results: The prevalence of poor oral hygiene and poor dietary habits was observed in children who spent more time in watching television, playing videogames and using computer. Good oral hygiene was observed in children who had visited dentists in the past. Conclusion: There is a strong association of lifestyle factors with oral hygiene in pre-adolescent children. Sedentary lifestyle, with more leisure activities, has a negative impact on the oral health of children. Source

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