Showa Pharmaceutical University

www.shoyaku.ac.jp
Tokyo, Japan

Showa Pharmaceutical University is a private university at Machida, Tokyo, Japan. The predecessor, Showa Women’s Pharmaceutical Junior College, was founded in 1930, and it was chartered as a university in 1949. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Johns Hopkins University and Showa Pharmaceutical University | Date: 2016-12-12

In DN-DISC1 mice, a mouse model for major mental illnesses, the model that expresses pathological phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction simultaneously, the inventors of the present invention found pronounced levels of oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the striatum. These mice also displayed greater amounts of GAPDH-Siah1 binding, a protein-protein interaction that is activated under exposure to oxidative stress. The present inventors investigated the role of oxidative stress in other organ systems. As detailed herein, the inventors found that GAPDH-Siah1 binding was increased in mouse models of cardiac failure. It was also found, that certain novel analogs of deprenyl, significantly inhibited GAPDH-Siah1 binding in cardiac tissue. Thus, with experimental data provided herein, it is clear that this GAPDH-Siah1 binding cascade is a crucial mechanism involved in major mental illness, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction, as well as in stress-associated diseases involving other organs where GAPDH is expressed. The present invention provides compounds and composition comprising analogs of deprenyl and their use in the inhibition of nuclear GAPDH-Siah1 binding and the activation of p300 and MEF2. Also provided herein are methods of prevention and treatment of stress induced disorders of the body, including, for example, major mental illness, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction, as well as in stress-associated diseases involving other organs, such as cardiac hypertrophy, in vivo, comprising administering to a mammal a therapeutically effective amount of analogs of deprenyl.


Uno Y.,Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories Ltd. | Shimizu M.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Yamazaki H.,Showa Pharmaceutical University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), drug-metabolizing enzymes essential for the metabolism of endogenous biochemicals and foreign compounds, have been characterized in human (including FMO1-5 and FMO6P), but remain to be investigated in cynomolgus macaque. In this study, cDNAs of cynomolgus FMO1-5 and FMO6 were isolated and characterized. Amino acid sequences of cynomolgus FMO1-5, respectively, shared high sequence identities (94-98%) and were closely clustered in a phylogenetic tree, with human FMO1-5. Eight different transcripts, due to alternative splicing, were isolated for cynomolgus FMO6, which is highly identical (~96%) to human FMO6P. Among the 10 tissue types analyzed, cynomolgus FMO1, FMO2, FMO4, and FMO6 were most abundantly expressed in kidney, while cynomolgus FMO3 and FMO5 were most abundantly expressed in liver. In kidney and liver, the most abundantly expressed cynomolgus FMO genes were FMO1 and FMO3, respectively. Cynomolgus FMO1, FMO2, FMO3, and FMO5 metabolized benzydamine, and FMO1/FMO3 and FMO3 also metabolized methimazole and trimethylamine, respectively. Rates of benzydamine N-oxygenation (catalyzed by FMO3) varied (approximately 20-fold) among the 28 cynomolgus livers and were significantly correlated with FMO3 protein expression, indicating that the inter-animal variations in benzydamine N-oxygenation might be partly accounted for by the variable FMO3 expression. Cynomolgus FMO6 metabolized benzydamine only slightly, but minimal expression of FMO6 in all tissue precludes the importance of FMO6 in drug metabolism, unlike cynomolgus FMO1, FMO2, FMO3, and FMO5 which were all functional. Abundant expression of FMO1 and FMO3 in kidney and liver, respectively, suggest their importance in drug metabolism in cynomolgus macaque, similar to human. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Ogra Y.,Showa Pharmaceutical University
Nihon eiseigaku zasshi. Japanese journal of hygiene | Year: 2014

Copper (Cu) is an essential metal for living organisms that utilize oxygen for respiration and is required as a cofactor of redox-regulating enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, lysyl oxidase, tyrosinase, and dopamine β-hydroxylase. However, the redox-active property of this metal may have toxic effects on cells due to the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. Given these circumstances, it is said that cells have a dependable system for Cu homeostasis that efficiently distributes this essential metal to cuproenzymes, thereby preventing damage to proteins, nucleic acids, sugars, and lipids. In particular, influx, efflux, and intracellular distribution with maintenance of the oxidation state of Cu are strictly regulated. Several groups of Cu-regulating factors have been identified in mammalian cells, i.e., Cu transporters, Cu chaperones, Cu-binding proteins/peptides, and others. In this review, the features of the Cu-regulating factors are concisely examined in terms of molecular mechanisms underlying Cu homeostasis in cells.


Niwa T.,Shujitsu University | Murayama N.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Imagawa Y.,Shujitsu University | Yamazaki H.,Showa Pharmaceutical University
Drug Metabolism Reviews | Year: 2015

This article reviews in vitro metabolic activities [including Michaelis constants (Km), maximal velocities (Vmax) and Vmax/Km] and drug-steroid interactions [such as induction and cooperativity (activation)] of cytochromes P450 (P450 or CYP) in human tissues, including liver and adrenal gland, for 14 kinds of endogenous steroid compounds, including allopregnanolone, cholesterol, cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, estrone, pregnenolone, progesterone, testosterone and bile acids (cholic acid). First, we considered the drug-metabolizing P450s. 6β-Hydroxylation of many steroids, including cortisol, cortisone, progesterone and testosterone, was catalyzed primarily by CYP3A4. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, respectively, are likely the major hepatic enzymes responsible for 2-/4-hydroxylation and 16α-hydroxylation of estradiol and estrone, steroids that can contribute to breast cancer risk. In contrast, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 predominantly metabolized estrone and estradiol to 2- and 4-catechol estrogens, which are endogenous ultimate carcinogens if formed in the breast. Some metabolic activities of CYP3A4, including dehydroepiandrosterone 7β-/16α-hydroxylation, estrone 2-hydroxylation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, were higher than those for polymorphically expressed CYP3A5. Next, we considered typical steroidogenic P450s. CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP27A1 catalyzed steroid synthesis, including hydroxylation at 17α, 19 and 27 positions, respectively. However, it was difficult to predict which hepatic drug-metabolizing P450 or steroidogenic P450 will be mainly responsible for metabolizing each steroid hormone in vivo based on these results. Further research is required on the metabolism of steroid hormones by various P450s and on prediction of their relative contributions to in vivo metabolism. The findings collected here provide fundamental and useful information on the metabolism of steroid compounds. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Niwa T.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Yamazaki H.,Showa Pharmaceutical University
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2012

This review focuses on identification of important active-site residues of the cytochrome P450 2C (CYP2C) subfamily in terms of substrate specificity. A meta-analysis was performed on the reported literature regarding (1) values of the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), maximal velocity (V max), and intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) for 74 metabolic reactions of 45 substrates mediated by human CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19 and (2) inhibition constants (Ki) for 3 inhibitors. Although the kinetic behaviors of these CYP2C subfamily members depend on the metabolic reaction, the ratios of Vmax/Km values for CYP2C19/CYP2C9 and CYP2C8/CYP2C19, but not for CYP2C8/CYP2C9, were more closely correlated with Km values than with Vmax values, suggesting that, for many metabolic reactions, differences in affinity may be more important than differences in capacity for the substrate/reaction specificity of the CYP2C subfamily, especially for CYP2C19. In addition, it has been proposed that the residues involved in substrate recognition sites (SRS) 1, SRS 3, and/or SRS 4 are important for the metabolizing capacity and/or the substrate binding of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. In contrast to the reasonable amount of kinetic data available, there are few reports comparing the effects of inhibitors [inhibitory constant (Ki) or 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)] on metabolic reactions mediated by the CYP2C subfamily. Collectively, these findings provide insights into the contributions of CYP2C subfamily members to drug metabolism and adverse drug interactions. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Saito A.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Taniguchi A.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Kambara Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Hanzawa Y.,Showa Pharmaceutical University
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

The metal-free [2 + 2 + 1] annulation of alkynes, nitriles, and O-atoms for the regioselective assembly of 2,4-disubstituted and 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazole compounds has been achieved by the use of PhIO with TfOH or Tf 2NH. The present reaction could be applied to a facile synthesis of an anti-inflammatory drug. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Itoh S.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Itoh F.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science
Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a pleiotropic secretory protein which inhibits and potentiates tumour progression during early and late stage of tumourigenicity, respectively. However, it still remains veiled how TGF-β signalling reveals its two faces. Hoshino et al. (Autocrine TGF-β protects breast cancer cells from apoptosis through reduction of BH3-only protein, Bim, J. Biochem. 2011;149:55-65) demonstrated a new aspect of TGF-β as a survival factor in highly metastatic breast cancer cells from which TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 are abundantly expressed. They found that TGF-β suppressed the expression of BH3-only protein Bim which promotes programmed death signalling via release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Further interestingly, forkhead box C1 (Foxc1) whose expression is suppressed upon TGF-β stimulation is involved in the expression of Bim. Based on their results, autocrine TGF-β signalling in certain breast cancers promotes cell survival via inhibition of apoptotic signalling. Thus, the inhibitors for activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)5 kinase might exert a curative influence on certain types of metastatic breast cancers. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.


Saito A.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Konishi T.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Hanzawa Y.,Showa Pharmaceutical University
Organic Letters | Year: 2010

(Figure presented) The cationic N-heterocyclic carbene-gold(I) complex catalyzes the formation of tri- and tetrasubstituted pyrroles via the amino-Claisen rearrangement of N-propargyl β-enaminone derivatives and the cyclization of α-allenyl β-enaminone intermediates. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Yamazaki H.,Showa Pharmaceutical University | Shimizu M.,Showa Pharmaceutical University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3, EC 1.14.13.8) in liver catalyzes a variety of oxygenations of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing medicines and xenobiotic substances. Loss-of-function mutations of the FMO3 gene, the enzyme responsible for trimethylamine N-oxygenation, cause the inherited disorder trimethylaminuria (also known as fish odor syndrome). In this mini-review, mutations of the FMO3 gene reported in the literature and in the National Center for Biotechnology Information single nucleotide polymorphism database were surveyed. Then, the activities of FMO3 variants in human liver microsomes and the activities of recombinantly expressed FMO3 variant proteins with respect to the oxygenation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing drugs were summarized and the potential for drug interactions was demonstrated. Individual differences in FMO3 function were seen in subjects genotyped for homozygous FMO3 variants. Specific regions of the FMO3 C-terminus are required for functional activity. Naturally truncated FMO3 is believed to have barely detectable function, thereby explaining the relationship with severe impaired phenotypes. The present article provides fundamental, up-to-date information on the importance of human FMO3 in individual xenobiotic oxygenations, including those of new medicines and dietary-derived trimethylamine. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Patent
Johns Hopkins University and Showa Pharmaceutical University | Date: 2013-08-19

The present invention provides compounds and composition comprising analogs of deprenyl and their use in the inhibition of nuclear GAPDH-Siahl binding and the activation of p300 and MEF2. Also provided herein are methods of prevention and treatment of stress induced disorders of the body, including, for example, major mental illness, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction, as well as stress-associated diseases involving other organs, such as cardiac hypertrophy, in vivo, comprising administering to a mammal a therapeutically effective amount of analogs of deprenyl.

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