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College Park, GA, United States

Campbell J.W.,Shorter College | Mengak M.T.,University of Georgia | Castleberry S.B.,University of Georgia | Mejia J.D.,California State University, Northridge
Southeastern Naturalist | Year: 2010

Knowledge of species distribution is fundamental to conservation and management efforts. Unfortunately, distribution of many mammal species in the southeastern United States, including some considered endangered, threatened, or of special concern, has been and remains poorly documented. We queried museums, reviewed the published literature, and searched state Natural Heritage Inventory databases to obtain distributional information for 13 mammal species considered rare (Global Rank G1G3 or State Rank S1S3) or of other conservation concern in the Southern Appalachian region. We constructed distribution maps for selected mammal species within the region based on 7 state Natural Heritage Inventory databases and 1539 county records from 26 museums and 57 published sources. Napaeozapus insignis (Woodland Jumping Mouse), Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel), and Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Red Squirrel) exhibited large (>150 km) geographic differences from currently accepted range maps. Sorex dispar (Rock Shrew), Synaptomys cooperi (Southern Bog Lemming), Neotoma magister (Allegheny Woodrat), and Zapus hudsonius (Meadow Jumping Mouse), exhibited small (<75 km) geographic differences. The remaining 6 species showed little to no range differences from commonly accepted range maps. Because seven of 13 mammals showed substantial differences from known range maps, our updated maps may aide managers and others in focusing surveying and conservation efforts. Source


Waters M.N.,Shorter College | Piehler M.F.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Smoak J.M.,University of South Florida | Martens C.S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2010

Palaeolimnological data were used to investigate drivers of the community of primary producers in Lake Mattamuskeet, North Carolina, U.S.A. This is a large, shallow lake with two basins currently dominated by phytoplankton and macrophytes. The two basins were divided in 1940 by the building of a roadway across the lake, which also corresponded with the divergence in their ecosystem state. Photosynthetic pigments, organic matter and nutrients (P, N, C, S) were analysed in sediment cores from each basin to reconstruct the primary producer community over the past c. 100 years. We sought to answer two questions. First, what changes to the ecosystem resulting from the building of the roadway caused the development of different primary producer communities in the two basins? Second, why have the alternative ecosystem states persisted despite a variety of human perturbations since 1940? K-means cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to identify three sediment types based on photosynthetic pigment data: sediments indicating low productivity (low pigment concentrations), sediments associated with macrophytes (chlorophyll a and b) and with phytoplankton (alloxanthin and aphanizophyll). In addition, other palaeolimnological proxies measured, such as loss on ignition, total phosphorus, total organic carbon/total nitrogen and other nutrients, were different in post-1940 sediments within the two basins. These differences suggest characteristics, such as nutrient cycling, water depth and other physical changes resulting from roadway construction, combined to establish and maintain the differing communities of primary producers in the two basins. Furthermore, Fe/S dynamics and waterfowl herbivory probably contributed to the development of the two ecosystem states. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Campbell J.W.,High Point University | Woods M.,Shorter College | Ball H.L.,Shorter College | Pirkle R.S.,Shorter College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2011

Abundance and species richness of terrestrial cave invertebrates are not well known but are thought to be constrained by nutrient (food) supplies. A standard sampling procedure for collecting cave invertebrates does not exist. The majority of cave systems in the southeastern USA (e.g. Alabama and Georgia) have not been extensively sampled for invertebrates. We tested a baited ramp-pitfall trap for collecting terrestrial invertebrates from caves and investigated whether macroinvertebrate abundance and species richness follow total organic matter (TOM) levels from cave soils. In 14-day sampling periods, we captured 21,204 invertebrates from 14 orders comprising at least 44 species from five caves in north Alabama and Georgia. Diptera was the most frequently captured order, comprising 18 species and over 91% of our captures. Overall, our traps were successful at sampling terrestrial invertebrates from caves; however, species richness and abundance did not always correlate with TOM concentration. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Sanders C.J.,Federal University of Fluminense | Smoak J.M.,University of South Florida | Sanders L.M.,University of South Florida | Waters M.N.,Shorter College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2010

A sediment core was taken to determine if sediment accumulation rates could be conducted using 240+239Pu signatures in the coastal mangrove mudflats of southeastern Brazil. The results from this study show that 240+239Pu fallout activities are sufficient and well preserved in the coastal sediments of this region. Sediment accumulation rates determined from the 240+239Pu signatures were 4.4 mm/year and 4.1 from 210Pb (CIC) method. A sediment mixing coefficient rate was calculated using chlorophyll-a profile (9.5 cm2). © 2009 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source


Campbell J.W.,Shorter College | Waters M.N.,Shorter College | Tarter A.,South Carolina Department of Natural Resources | Jackson J.,Shorter College
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

Liver samples from 33 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) livers from the Charleston, South Carolina, area were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) concentrations. Alligators are top predators and are considered a good biomonitoring species for various toxins, including heavy metals. Alligators from other areas in the US have shown high concentrations of mercury and other heavy metals, but the Charleston area, which is highly industrialized, has not been investigated. We found wide variation in hepatic heavy metal and selenium concentrations among alligators. Length and sex did not show a strong relationship with any metal based on statistical analysis. However, cluster analysis revealed three groupings of alligators based on liver metal concentrations. Alligators with low Se:Hg ratios also had high concentrations of Hg. Due to the wide variation in metal concentrations among individual alligators, we postulate that individual diet and microhabitat usage could be the cause for this variation. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010. Source

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