Shoreline Science Research Inc.

Hachiōji, Japan

Shoreline Science Research Inc.

Hachiōji, Japan

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Shimono A.,Shoreline Science Research Inc
Japan Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2016

The application examples of PTR-MS which measures volatile organics forming flavor or quality of foods in real-time were introduced focusing on breath-by-breath analysis of retronasal aroma. Time variations of multiple low concentration flavor compounds at each exhalation events after swallowing food or drink could be tracked simultaneously by using PTR-MS instruments. With this approach, the aroma perception was analyzed in view of mass transfer processes, especially remarking interfacial mass transfer which determined liquid-gas partitioning. Physicochemical properties related with retronasal aroma were complicated and could not be interpreted only by the differences of simple Henry’s law constants. © 2015, Japan Society for Food Engineering. All rights reserved.


Sato K.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Takami A.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Kato Y.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Kato Y.,Nuclear Material Control Center | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

Oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) observed in remote areas is believed to comprise aged secondary organic aerosol (SOA); however, the reaction processes relevant to SOA chemical aging have hitherto been unclear. We recently measured the mass spectra of SOA formed from the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons using an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and reported that SOA aging is slowed with increasing number of alkyl groups in the precursor molecule. In this study, we selected benzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) as precursors to analyze SOA formed from the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of NO x using high-resolution time-of-flight AMS (H-ToF-AMS) and liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS). A van Krevelen diagram was studied using the O/C and H/C ratios obtained by H-ToF-AMS for organics present in SOA. The results showed these organics to be rich in carboxylic acids or hydroxycarbonyls and the O/C ratio of SOA formed by the reaction of 1,3,5-TMB to be lower than that for benzene. Analytical results from LC/TOF-MS showed the particulate products formed by the reaction of 1,3,5-TMB to be richer in ketocarboxylic acids than for benzene. These results indicate that SOA aging proceeds mainly by formation of carboxylic acids and that the rate of SOA aging in laboratory chambers is limited by the oxidation of ketone groups. SOA formed in laboratory chamber experiments is less oxidized than for ambient OOA, not only because the experimental duration is insufficient or the SOA mass loading in the chamber is higher than that of the atmosphere. The laboratory chamber experiments under dry conditions are not able to simulate ketocarboxylic acid photochemical oxidation in the aqueous phase. The fractions of organic peroxides to the total SOA mass were determined by iodometric spectrophotometry to be 12 ± 8% (1,3,5-TMB) and <39% (benzene). Further, it was newly found that, unlike the reaction of benzene, only very small amounts of nitrophenols are produced by the reaction of 1,3,5-TMB. © 2012 Author(s).


Irei S.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Shimono A.,Shoreline Science Research Inc | Hikida T.,Shoreline Science Research Inc | Kuramoto K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2014

Quantitative estimation of particulate matter (PM) pollution from coal combustion, which is one of the major anthropogenic emission sources in China, is urgently needed to better understand transboundary pollution in the East Asian region. As a first step, we conducted laboratory experiments for the mass spectrometric characterization of fly ash from coal combustion using a fluidized bed reactor. Here, we report detection of notable signals at m/z 85, 87, and 133 in mass spectra for organic species obtained by an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Nine different coals, six of which were mined in north-east Asian region, were tested with three different combustion temperatures. The results showed that signals at m/z 85, 87, and 133 were significantly larger than those at the adjacent m/z, with similar observations having been made in different field studies carried out in western Japan. The m/z 85 to m/z 87 ratios were reproducible over the coals tested, suggesting the potential usefulness of these for fingerprinting coal combustion PM. The average ratio with the standard error of the mean was 2.8 ± 0.1. While the m/z 133 to m/z 87 ratios varied more, the mean ratio with the standard error of the mean was 1.5 ± 0.2, and the results were still reproducible. A comparison of the m/z 85 and 133 to m/z 87 ratios from other studies that also used AMS suggests that the ratios obtained in the current work are distinctive from those for vehicular emissions, plastic burning, and cooking emissions, but close to those for biomass burning. Despite this similarity, the results here still offer useful information for source identification of PM with the use of AMS measurements. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.


Inomata S.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Tanimoto H.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Fujitani Y.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Sekimoto K.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | And 8 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Nitro-organic compounds, some of which cause adverse health effects in humans, are emitted in diesel engine exhaust. Speciation and quantification of these nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust particles have been extensively conducted; however, investigations into the emissions of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust have not. In the present study, the properties of gaseous nitro-organic compounds in diesel engine exhaust were investigated through time-resolved measurement with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer. Three diesel trucks were tested, each with a different type of exhaust-gas treatment system (i.e., aftertreatment). Among the nitro-organic compounds detected, the emission of nitromethane was commonly observed and found to be related to the emissions of carbon monoxide, benzene, and acetone. The emission of other nitro-organic compounds, such as nitrophenol, depended on the vehicle, possibly due to the type of aftertreatment installed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Kutsuna S.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Hori H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Hori H.,Kanagawa University | Naganuma M.,Sanyu Plant Service Co. | Shimono A.,Shoreline Science Research Inc.
International Journal of Chemical Kinetics | Year: 2011

Henry's law constants of CHF2Cl in water at temperature T in K, KH(T) in M atm-1, were determined to be ln(K H(T))=-(11.1±1.5)+((2290±500)/T) at 313-363 K by means of a phase ratio variation headspace method. The temperature-dependent rate constants for aqueous reactions of CHF2Cl with OH-, k OH-(T) in M-1 s-1, were also determined to be 3.7× 1013exp(-(11, 200/T)) at 313-353 K, by considering the gas-water equilibrium, the aqueous reaction at room temperature, and liquid-phase diffusion control. The liquid-phase diffusion control was approximated with a one-dimensional diffusion first-order irreversible chemical reaction model. The k OH-(T) value we determined is 10 times (at 353 K) or 3 times (at 313 K) as large as the value reported (R. C. Downing, Fluorocarbon Refrigerants Handbook, Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1988). This upward revision of k OH-(T) indicates that the removal efficiency of CHF2Cl directly through the hydrolysis (CHF2Cl + OH-) is higher than previously expected at temperatures, such as 353 K, relevant to wet flue gas cleaning systems for ozone-destruction substance-destruction facilities. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Irei S.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Irei S.,University of Ryukyus | Takami A.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Hayashi M.,Fukuoka University | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of low-volatile water-soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) was measured in filter samples of total suspended particulate matter, collected every 24 h in the winter of 2010 at an urban site and two rural sites in western Japan. Concentrations of the major chemical species in fine aerosol (<1.0 μm) were also measured in real time by aerosol mass spectrometers. The oxidation state of organic aerosol was evaluated using f44; i.e., the proportion of the signal at m/z 44 (CO2 + ions from the carboxyl group) to the sum of all m/z signals in the organic mass spectra. A strong correlation between LV-WSOC and m/z 44 concentrations was observed, which suggested that LV-WSOC was likely to be associated with carboxylic acids in fine aerosol. Plots of δ13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 showed random variation at the urban site and systematic trends at the rural sites. The systematic trends qualitatively agreed with a simple binary mixture model of secondary organic aerosol with background LV-WSOC with an f44 of ∼0.08 and δ13C of -17‰ or higher. Comparison with reference values suggested that the source of background LV-WSOC was likely to be primary emissions associated with C4 plants. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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