Shobhit University

Meerut, India

Shobhit University

Meerut, India
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Singh V.,Translam Institute of Pharm Education and Research | Chaudhary A.K.,Shobhit University
Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research | Year: 2011

The objective of this investigation was to develop the hollow microspheres as a new dosage form of floating drug delivery system with prolonged stomach retention time. Hollow microspheres containing ranitidine hydrochloride were prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RLPO dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane and ethanol. The maximum yield and drug loading amount of hollow microspheres were 88.45% and 80 ± 4.0%, respectively. The in vitro release profiles showed that the drug release rate decreased with increasing viscosity of Eudragit RLPO, while diameter of hollow microspheres increased with the increase of drug polymer weight ratio. Hollow microspheres could prolong drug release time (approximately 24 h) and float over stimulate gastric fluid for more than 12 h. These results demonstrated that ranitidine HCl hollow microspheres were capable of sustained delivery of the drug for longer period with increased bioavailability.

Kumar A.,Shobhit University | Singh V.,Translam Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Chaudhary A.K.,Shobhit University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. is used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat peptic ulcer. Aim of the study: To evaluate the gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activity of Cedrus deodara. Materials and methods: The volatile oil extracted by steam distillation of Cedrus deodara wood was examined for its gastric antisecretory and antiulcer effect in the pylorus-ligated rat model and ethanol induced gastric lesions in rats. Results: The volatile oil showed significant antisecretory activity as evidenced by decreased gastric fluid volume, total acidity, free acidity and increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats. Our studies also revealed that pretreatment with Cedrus deodara significantly reduced the number of ulcer, ulcer score and ulcer index in pylorus-ligated and ethanol treated rats. The antiulcer activity of Cedrus deodara is further supported by histopathological study which showed protection of mucosal layer from ulceration and inflammation. Conclusion: The present findings conclude that volatile oil of Cedrus deodara wood has potent antisecretory and antiulcer effects and justify the traditional usage of this herb to treat peptic ulcers. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Sanwal R.,Shobhit University | Chaudhary A.K.,Shobhit University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Carissa spinarum Linn. (Apocynaceae), popularly known as Jungle karunda, has been traditionally used as wound healing agent. Aim of the study: To investigate in vivo wound healing and antimicrobial properties of methanolic extract of Carissa spinarum. Materials and methods: The effect of methanolic extract of Carissa spinarum root extracted by cold maceration was evaluated on burn wound model in mice. The wound healing activity of 1% and 2.5% (w/w) extract was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelization and hydroxyproline content. Histological study of the granulation tissue was carried out to know the extent of collagen formation in the wound tissue. The antimicrobial activity of extract was also studied against the bacterial and fungal strain using agar dilution method. Results: The results showed that Carissa spinarum root extract has significant wound healing activity as evident from the rate of wound contraction and epithelization. Hydroxyproline expressions and histological parameters were also well correlated with the healing pattern observed. Methanolic extract also exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Conclusions: The present study provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of Carissa spinarum in the management of wounds. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ashwlayan V.D.,Shobhit University | Singh R.,Shobhit University
International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

Methanolic extract of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica Linn (Euphorbiaceae) was investigated for its reversal effect on memory deficits in mice. Two doses of the extract (75 and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered for seven consecutive days. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg, i.p.) were used to induce memory deficits (amnesia). Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Morris water maze (MWM) were employed to evaluate short and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine and sodium nitrite treatment produced significant impairment of elevated plus maze and Morris water maze performance indicating impairment of memory. The methanolic fruits extract significantly (p<0.05) improved EPM and MWM performance of scopolamine and sodium nitrite treated mice. The results indicated potential of the plant in relieving memory deficits.

Jain V.,Shobhit University | Singh R.,Shobhit University
Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research | Year: 2010

In the present work, paracetamol loaded eudragit based microsponges were prepared using quasiemulsion solvent diffusion method. The compatibility of the drug with various formulation components was established. Process parameters were analyzed in order to optimize the formulation. Shape and surface morphology of the microsponges were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The formulations were subjected to in vitro release studies and the results were evaluated kinetically and statically. The in vitro release data showed a bi-phasic pattern with an initial burst effect. In the first hour drug release from microsponges was found to be between 17-30%. The cumulative percent release at the end of 8th hour was noted to be between 54-83%. The release kinetics showed that the data followed Higuchi model and the main mechanism of drug release was diffusion.The colon specific tablets were prepared by compressing the microsponges followed by coating with pectin: hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) mixture. In vitro release studies exhibited that compression coated colon specific tablet formulations started releasing the drug at 6th hour corresponding to the arrival time at proximal colon. The study presents a new approach for colon specific drug delivery.

Rai M.K.,Thapar University | Sarkar S.,Shobhit University
Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science | Year: 2011

This paper address the influence of tube diameter on single walled carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle interconnect delay and power output in Very Large Scale application. We find that single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundle interconnects are of lower delay than copper interconnect due to low resistance and inductance. Power dissipation decreases with increase in tube diameter of the constituent SWCNT. CNT interconnect resistance and inductance increases with increase in tube diameter. On the other hand, with increase in tube diameter interconnect capacitance decreases. There is a trade off between delay and power dependence on tube diameter. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gaurav A.,Shobhit University
Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry | Year: 2010

The chemistry of pyrazoloquinolines is well established. This system has proved to be a very attractive scaffold for medicinal chemist in the recent past. Pyrazoloquinolines were extensively studied as bioactive compounds and are known to possess remarkable biological activities such as anti cancer, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, cerebroprotective and antiviral among others. For many of the activities the molecular mode of action is known. Recent research efforts have also highlighted the ability of agents based on pyrazoloquinoline skeleton to modulate adenosine A3 receptors and the phosphodiesterase receptors. In this review the developments in the medicinal chemistry of pyrazoloquinolines is discussed.

Chaudhary A.,Shobhit University | Tiwari N.,Shobhit University | Jain V.,Shobhit University | Singh R.,Shobhit University
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2011

Microporous bilayer osmotic tablet bearing dicyclomine hydrochloride and diclofenac potassium was developed using a new oral drug delivery system for colon targeting. The tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan-coating process. The developed microporous bilayer osmotic pump tablet (OPT) did not require laser drilling to form the drug delivery orifice. The colon-specific biodegradation of pectin could form in situ delivery pores for drug release. The effect of formulation variables like inclusion of osmogen, amount of HPMC and NaCMC in core, amount of pore former in semipermeable membrane was studied. Scanning electron microscopic photographs showed formation of in situ delivery pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The number of pores was dependent on the amount of the pore former in the semipermeable membrane. In vitro dissolution results indicated that system showed acid-resistant, timed release and was able to deliver drug at an approximate zero order up to 24 h. The developed tablets could be effectively used for colon-specific drug delivery to treat IBS. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jain V.,Shobhit University | Singh R.,Shobhit University
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop a prolonged microsponge drug delivery system containing dicyclomine. Methods: Dicyclomine-loaded, Eudragit-based microsponges were prepared using a quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. The compatibility of the drug with formulation components was established by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR). Process parameters were modulated to optimise the formulation. Shape and surface morphology of the microsponges were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results: The results of compatibility tests showed that no chemical interaction or changes took place during preparation of the formulations; furthermore, the drug was stable in all the formulations. In increase in drug:polymer ratio resulted in a reduction in the release rate of the drug from the microsponges. Kinetic analysis showed that the main mechanism of drug release was by Higuchi matrix-controlled diffusion. Drug release was bi-phasic with an initial burst effect with 16 - 30 % of the drug was released in the first hour. Cumulative release for the microsponges over 8 hours ranged from 59 - 86 %. Conclusion: This study presents an approach for the modification of microsponges for prolonged drug release of dicyclomine. The unique compressibility of microsponges can be applied to achieve effective local action since microsponges may be taken up by macrophages present in colon. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin. All rights reserved.

Vaddi R.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Dasgupta S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Agarwal R.P.,Shobhit University
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices | Year: 2010

Digital circuits operating in a subthreshold region have gained wide interest due to their suitability for applications requiring ultralow power consumption with low-to-medium performance criteria. It has been demonstrated that by appropriately optimizing the devices for subthreshold logic, total energy consumption can be reduced significantly. One of the major concerns for subthreshold circuit design is increased sensitivity to process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations. In this paper, we critically study the effect of variations of different device and environmental parameters like gate oxide thickness, channel length, threshold voltage, supply voltage, temperature, and reverse body bias on subthreshold circuit performance for 32 nm bulk CMOS. From the study, we conclude that alternative devices like double-gate silicon-on-insulator (DGSOI) are better candidates in terms of performance, robustness and PVT insensitivity as compared to bulk circuits for both static CMOS and pseudo NMOS logic families. We also study the performance and robustness comparisons of bulk CMOS and DGSOI subthreshold basic logic gates with and without parameter variations and we observe 6070% improvement in power delay product and roughly 50% better tolerance to PVT variations of DGSOI subthreshold logic circuits compared to bulk CMOS subthreshold circuits at the 32 nm node. © 2006 IEEE.

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