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Verma R.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Khanna P.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Chawla S.,SHKM Government Medical College
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

The population in India over age 60 years has tripled in the past 50 years and will relentlessly increase in the near future. According to census 2011, elderly people were 8.1% of the total population, and the projections for population over 60 years over the next 4 censuses are 133 million (2021) expanding to 301 million (2051). In developing countries, the elderly have suffered from both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Moreover, advancing age is associated with decreased immunity along with physiological changes, and poor health leads to increased risk of infectious diseases. Infections such as pneumococcal, influenza, tetanus, and zoster are more common among elderly population. These infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly and are responsible for a large number of deaths and hospitalizations. Communicable diseases like influenza and pneumonia are the fifth leading cause of death among elderly persons. A study reported the incidence of nosocomial infections in geriatric patients in India to be ∼20%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common microbe associated with Urinary Tract Infection, while Staphylococcus aureus was frequently observed in cases of pneumonia among hospitalized elderly population. In India, because of many reasons, preventive care for elderly persons is often neglected. Among the many infections to which the elderly are prone, some can be prevented by administration of appropriate vaccines. Vaccination of the elderly is one of the most effective means of preventing disease, disability, and death from infectious diseases. © 2014 Landes Bioscience. Source

Verma R.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Khanna P.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Chawla S.,SHKM Government Medical College
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2015

WHO defines adolescence age between 10 to 19 years. In India, there are 243 million adolescents which constitute 21 per cent of the total population. The global burden of disease in adolescents (2011) reports that the total number of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide among adolescents were 230 million which constitutes 15.5% of total DALYs. The immunization is one of the most important, most beneficial and cost-effective disease prevention measures that can be provided for adolescents. The adolescent vaccination protects most of the world’s adolescents from a number of infectious diseases that previously claimed millions of lives each year. In India, thousands of adolescents die and thousands are hospitalized every year due to communicable diseases that could have been prevented by vaccination. Main aims of adolescent vaccinations are: to boost immunity status that is waning after completion of primary immunization or absence of “natural” boosting due exposure to the particular disease. The recommendations for the immunization of adolescents are to improve vaccination coverage among them. The adolescent vaccinations also help in accelerate disease control or elimination effort. Improvement in adolescent immunization coverage in India, will require strengthening of health care delivery system and also require significant improvements in the health care functionaries ability and willingness to provide and deliver vaccines to adolescents. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Verma R.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Khanna P.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Chawla S.,SHKM Government Medical College
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2015

India’s tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ~8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler’s age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Sharma S.,Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital | Sharma S.C.,SHKM Government Medical College
Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma | Year: 2016

Primary total hip replacement has become a routine procedure these days. With improvement in surgical techniques and implant designs, the survival rate of prosthesis has increased significantly but unfortunately, prosthetic infections though uncommon continue to be a threatening complication. We present a detailed review of the literature along with a case report of infected total hip prosthesis in a 36-year-old female who had been operated 6 years back. The causative organism was found to be Actinomyces israelii which was related to an infected intrauterine device used for contraception that had been forgotten after being implanted 8 years earlier. © 2015 Delhi Orthopedic Association. Source

Kumar S.,Pt. B D Sharma PGIMS | Sharma D.,Pt. B D Sharma PGIMS | Chawla S.,SHKM Government Medical College
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2014

Background: Considerable evidence suggests a role for micronutrients in pregnancy outcomes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of maternal micronutrients supplementation on the birth weight of their babies. Method: A randomized controlled trial was conducted between 1st Sept. 2009 to 30th Nov. 2010 at Pt. B.D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (PGIMS), Rohtak (Haryana) in the Department of Pediatrics and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Study involved 560 pregnant women of 12 to 14 weeks gestation, out of which 280 received multiple micronutrients supplement tablet and other 280 received iron and folic acid in tablet once daily after meals. Results: The gestational age, birth weight and birth length were significantly higher in the multiple micronutrients supplement group as compared to the iron folic acid group. The proportion of Low Birth Weight was reduced by 22.5% and period of gestational was 0.45 weeks higher in study group as compared to iron folic acid group (p<0.001). Birth length was 0.62 cm higher in study group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Multiple micronutrients (MMN) supplementation can be beneficial for reducing the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery also mortality and morbidity in neonates. © 2014 Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved. Source

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