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Zhang L.,University of Shizuoka | Ma G.,University of Shizuoka | Shirai Y.,University of Shizuoka | Shirai Y.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry | And 4 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2012

In the present study, two LCYb genes (CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2) were isolated from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f.) and their functions were analyzed by the color complementation assay in lycopene-accumulating E. coli cells. The results showed that CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 shared high identity at the amino acid level among the three citrus varieties. The N-terminal region of the two proteins encoded by CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 was predicted to contain a 51-residue chloroplastic transit peptide, which shared low similarity. In Satsuma mandarin, the secondary structures of the CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 encoding proteins without the transit peptide were quite similar. Moreover, functional analysis showed that both enzymes of CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 participated in the formation of β-carotene, and when they were co-expressed with CitLCYe, α-carotene could be produced from lycopene in E. coli cells. However, although CitLCYb2 could convert lycopene to α-carotene in E. coli cells, its extremely low level of expression indicated that CitLCYb2 did not participate in the formation of α-carotene during the green stage in the flavedo. In addition, the high expression levels of CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 during the orange stage played an important role in the accumulation of β,β-xanthophylls in citrus fruits. The results presented in this study might contribute to elucidate the mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in citrus fruits. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Masui S.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2010

The effect of trimming and harvesting host tea plants and bigleaf podocarp trees on the dispersal of Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood adults to citrus orchards was investigated in tea fields and in the windbreaks of bigleaf podocarps adjacent to a citrus orchard. The days of the highest trap catch in the three types of fields coincided with each other and with the days on which there were the maximum number of adults in the citrus orchards, estimated as a function of generation temperature. In all three types of fields, when the tea plants and bigleaf podocarp trees were not trimmed after the peak days, the number of adults captured by the trap decreased within 10 d to the level observed 5 d before the peak. This decrease was not observed when the tea plants were trimmed 1-9 d after the peak days. These results suggest that the flight activity of adults is highest immediately after emergence and that trimming host plants encourages the flight behavior of adults by reducing the amount of food available. Source


Takikawa Y.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology | Takahashi F.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology | Takahashi F.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Bacterial leaf spot and blight diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pcal) are becoming a significant concern for producers of crucifer crops worldwide. Since Psm was first described in 1911, many have reported on its diverse phenotypic, genetic and pathogenic characteristics. Japanese isolates of Psm are also heterogeneous and differ in their host preferences. Pcal was first described in 2002 and has quickly spread globally. Recent work demonstrated that some isolates that had been identified as Psm are actually Pcal. Pcal was also shown to be split into two groups, A and B, based on bacteriological properties, genetic traits and pathogenicity. Group A of Pcal consists mostly of isolates from Japanese radish and radish, isolated before 1990s, that are more aggressive on radish leaves but less aggressive on other Brassica plants compared with group B. Group B of Pcal consists of recent isolates from various crucifer plants including the pathotype of Pcal. In this review, we suggest that group A of Pcal may have existed since the 1950s and survived as a relatively minor pathogen on radish or Japanese radish, whereas group B emerged in the late 1990s, causing global epidemics because of its stronger virulence on various Brassica crops. We also suggest that emergence of a new group of a pathogenic bacterium may cause a re-emergence or new epidemics of a disease that previously was of minor importance. © 2014, The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan. Source


Sugiyama K.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry | Katayama H.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry | Saito T.,University of Shizuoka
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2011

The toxicities of 24 insecticides for the biological control of whiteflies were evaluated for Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet), Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan using the residual film method (for adults) and the dipping method (for pupae). Mortalities from insect growth regulators (IGRs) (flufenoxuron and lufenuron), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), pymetrozine and sulfur were <30% for both pupae and adults of all three species, indicating that the parasitoids were not seriously affected by these insecticides. Neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid and nitenpyram), synthetic pyrethroids (etofenprox and permethrin), organophosphates (acephate and fenitrothion), chlorphenapyr, emamectin benzoate, spinosad and tolfenpyrad were seriously harmful (100% mortality) and acaricides (chinomethionat, milbemectin and pyridaben) were moderately harmful or seriously harmful to adult parasitoids (leading to mortalities of >92%). For each insecticide, the mortality of pupae was generally lower than that of adults, even though the toxicity classification for the two groups was similar. The results indicate that IGRs, Bt, pymetrozine and sulfur are relatively harmless, and are compatible with the use of parasitoids to help control whiteflies for integrated pest management in greenhouses. © 2011 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. Source


Sugiyama K.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry | Ohishi N.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry | Saito T.,University of Shizuoka
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2014

We conducted a preliminary comparison of greenhouses using positive-pressure forced ventilation (PFV) systems and natural ventilation (NV) systems, and assessed the effectiveness of both systems for preventing the invasion of greenhouses used to cultivate tomatoes by insect pests. In Trial 1 (August–December 2006), greenhouses using a PFV system and an insect-proof screen (mesh size 1.0 mm) had fewer sweetpotato whiteflies and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and more onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman), than greenhouses that employed an NV system fitted with the same screen. Tomato leafminers, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, were not observed in the greenhouse using the PFV system, but some were observed in the greenhouse using the NV system. In Trial 2 (August–December 2007), the greenhouse using the PFV system combined with an insect-proof screen (mesh size 0.4 mm) had higher whitefly densities after late October compared to the greenhouse using the NV system and the same screen. However, there were more thrips in the greenhouse using the PFV system compared to the greenhouse using the NV system. In both trials, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, which is transmitted by B. tabaci, was recorded in the greenhouse using the NV system but not in the greenhouse using the PFV system. The results showed that the PFV system was effective for preventing invasion by leafminers and partially effective for preventing invasion by whiteflies, but not effective for preventing invasion by thrips. © 2014, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. Source

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