Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene

Aoi, Japan

Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene

Aoi, Japan
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Kurebayashi Y.,University of Shizuoka | Takahashi T.,University of Shizuoka | Otsubo T.,Hiroshima International University | Ikeda K.,Hiroshima International University | And 17 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

Influenza virus is rich in variation and mutations. It would be very convenient for virus detection and isolation to histochemically detect viral infection regardless of variation and mutations. Here, we established a histochemical imaging assay for influenza virus sialidase activity in living cells by using a new fluorescent sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4- bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2- nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac). The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay histochemically visualized influenza virus-infected cells regardless of viral hosts and subtypes. Influenza virus neuraminidase-expressed cells, viral focus formation, and virus-infected locations in mice lung tissues were easily, rapidly, and sensitively detected by the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay. Histochemical visualization with the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is extremely useful for detection of influenza viruses without the need for fixation or a specific antibody. This novel assay should greatly improve the efficiency of detection, titration, and isolation of influenza viruses and might contribute to research on viral sialidase.

Ashizawa T.,Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute | Miyata H.,Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute | Ishii H.,Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute | Oshita C.,Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2011

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, a member of a family of DNA-binding molecules mediating numerous physiological and oncogenic signaling pathways, is a novel target in cancer cells which show high phosphorylation of STAT3. Recently, we identified a novel small-molecule inhibitor of STAT3 dimerization, STX-0119, as a cancer therapeutic. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo through numerous biochemical and biological assays. Specifically, the effects of STX-0119 on target genes (c-myc, cyclin D1, survivin) and apoptosis induction were analyzed in tumors treated with STX-0119 in vivo. STX-0119 showed strong growth-inhibitory activity against a broad range of hematological cancer cell lines, particularly lymphomas. STX-0119 suppressed the growth of SCC3 cells, a human lymphoma cell line with highly activated STAT3, through apoptosis and down-regulation of STAT3 targets such as c-myc, cyclin D1, survivin and Bcl-xL. Notably, Tyr-705-phosphorylated STAT3 up-regulation was not significantly suppressed by STX-0119, as opposed to other STAT3 inhibitors. STX-0119 demonstrated potent antitumor effects in vivo in SCC3-bearing nude mice by way of the down-regulation of STAT3 target genes and induction of apoptosis in the tumors. Thus, STX-0119 may be a new type of STAT3 inhibitor exhibiting strong antitumor activity. Copyright © 2011 Spandidos Publications Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Hiroshima International University, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene and Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Influenza A and B viruses possess a neuraminidase protein that shows sialidase activity. Influenza virus-specific neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are commonly used for clinical treatment of influenza. However, some influenza A and B viruses that are resistant to NAIs have emerged in nature. NAI-resistant viruses have been monitored in public hygiene surveys and the mechanism underlying the resistance has been studied. Here, we describe a new assay for selective detection and isolation of an NAI-resistant virus in a speedy and easy manner by live fluorescence imaging of viral sialidase activity, which we previously developed, in order to achieve high-efficiency capture of an NAI-resistant virus. An NAI-resistant virus maintains sialidase activity even at a concentration of NAI that leads to complete deactivation of the virus. Infected cells and focuses (infected cell populations) of an oseltamivir-resistant virus were selectively visualized by live fluorescence sialidase imaging in the presence of oseltamivir, resulting in high-efficiency isolation of the resistant viruses. The use of a combination of other NAIs (zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir) in the imaging showed that the oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in 2008 was sensitive to zanamivir and laninamivir but resistant to peramivir. Fluorescence imaging in the presence of zanamivir also succeeded in selective live-cell visualization of cells that expressed zanamivir-resistant NA. Fluorescence imaging of NAI-resistant sialidase activity will be a powerful method for study of the NAI resistance mechanism, for public monitoring of NAI-resistant viruses, and for development of a new NAI that shows an effect on various NAI-resistant mutations.

Yamashita S.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Yamashita S.,University of Shizuoka | Kume K.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Horiike T.,Pharmaceutical Affairs Office of Shizuoka Prefecture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from building and furnishing materials are frequently observed in high concentrations in indoor air. Nondestructive analytical methods that determine the main parameters influencing concentration of the chemical substances are necessary to screen for sources of VOC emissions. Toward this goal, we have developed a new flux sampler, referred to herein as an emission cell for simultaneous multi-sampling (ECSMS), that is used for screening indoor emission sources of VOCs and for determining the emission rates of these sources. Because the ECSMS is based on passive sampling, it can be easily used on-site at a low cost. Among VOCs, low-molecular-weight carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde are frequently detected at high concentrations in indoor environments. In this study, we determined the reliability of the ECSMS for the collection of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds emitted from wood-based composites of medium density fiberboards and particleboards. We then used emission rates determined by the ECSMS to predict airborne concentrations of formaldehyde emitted from a bookshelf in a large chamber, and these data were compared to formaldehyde concentrations that were acquired simultaneously by means of an active sampling method. The values obtained from the two methods were quite similar, suggesting that ECSMS measurement is an effective method for screening primary sources influencing indoor concentrations of formaldehyde. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Yamashita S.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Yamashita S.,University of Shizuoka | Kume K.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Horiike T.,Pharmaceutical Affairs Office of Shizuoka Prefecture | And 3 more authors.
Indoor and Built Environment | Year: 2012

A simple method for screening indoor emission sources of carbonyl compounds developed previously by the authors was used for this study. The new device, which is called "emission cell for simultaneous multisampling" (ECSMS), was used for flux sampling of volatile carbonyl compounds from surfaces of building and furnishing materials in situ. Indoor carbonyl concentrations in various rooms at a school and residential building in Shizuoka, Japan, were investigated in 2006 using the developed techniques. In several rooms, formaldehyde concentrations exceeded the air quality guideline value (100μgm-3) set by the World Health Organization. The formaldehyde emission rates from the various surfaces in those rooms were determined using the ECSMS units. The furniture was found to be the major emission source of formaldehyde emission in many of the rooms; emissions from the furniture accounted for 42-79% of each room's total emissions. On the basis of the results, a strategy to reduce the indoor formaldehyde concentrations in each room is proposed by this paper. This study confirmed that the ECSMS can be used for on-site screening of primary emission sources of formaldehyde that could cause indoor air pollution. © The Author(s), 2011.

Oikawa T.,University of Shizuoka | Unno Y.,University of Shizuoka | Matsuno K.,University of Shizuoka | Sawada J.-i.,University of Shizuoka | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

The protein Survivin is selectively overexpressed in a variety of cancers, but not in normal tissues. It has been reported to be involved in cell survival and cell division. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its function are not clear, although several binding partner proteins have been proposed to date. Here, we report the identification of a novel small molecule Survivin antagonist, which disrupts the Survivin-Smac/DIABLO interaction in cells. In order to identify Survivin-directed antagonists, we developed a high-throughput screening system based on AlphaScreen technology, which allows the identification of small molecules with the ability to inhibit the interaction of Survivin with Smac/DIABLO or INCENP in vitro. We screened chemical libraries, generated in-house, using this system and identified a 5-deazaflavin analog (compound 1) as a hit compound that selectively inhibited the interaction of Survivin with Smac/DIABLO but not INCENP. In cultured cells, compound 1 abrogated the formation of the complex between Survivin and Smac/DIABLO. In addition, this compound was able to sensitize cultured cells to doxorubicin-mediated DNA damage stress and synergistically enhance apoptotic cell death. Thus, the small-molecule inhibitor described here may serve as a proof-of-principle agent for discriminating between the multiple functions of Survivin. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hiroi M.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Kawamori F.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Harada T.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Sano Y.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in food-producing animals and retail raw meats in Japan, raw meat samples as well as food-producing animal feces, cutaneous swabs, and nasal swabs collected from 2004 to 2006 were analyzed. Isolation rates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, and S. aureus were 34.6% (363 of 1,050), 2.7% (28 of 1,050), and 32.8% (238 of 725), respectively. MRSA was isolated from 3% (9 of 300) of meat samples. No VRE were isolated in this study. Antibiotic resistance in C. coli was higher than that in C. jejuni. Three C. jejuni isolates from a patient with diarrhea in a hospital of Shizuoka Prefecture and two chicken samples that exhibited resistance to ciprofloxacin had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, suggesting that ciprofloxacin- resistant C. jejuni could have been distributed in meat. S. aureus isolates showed the highest level of resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline. Resistance to tetracycline in S. aureus isolates from beef was lower than that seen in isolates from chicken and pork (P < 0.01). This study revealed that the prevalence of MRSA and VRE were low in food-producing animals and retail domestic meats in Japan, although Campylobacter isolates resistant to fluoroquinolone and erythromycin were detected. The occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens should be monitored continuously to improve the management of the risks associated with antimicrobial drug resistance transferred from food-producing animals to humans. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.

Hiroi M.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Harada T.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Kawamori F.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Takahashi N.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | And 5 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

We surveyed β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from farm animals (chickens, pigs, and cattle) and raw retail meat in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. In total 305 E. coli isolates, 15 isolates collected from broilers, beef cattle, chicken meat, and pork meat, were found to contain β-lactamase genes encoding CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, CMY-2, SHV-2, and/or TEM-1, whereas 7 possessed mutations in the ampC promoter region. The findings suggest that broilers are more important than other farm animals with regards to the surveillance of β-lactamase-producing E. coli in this region.

Chang B.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Taguri T.,Nagasaki Prefectural Institute for Environmental Research and Public Health | Sugiyama K.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene | Amemura-Maekawa J.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) have been utilized for selective PCR amplification of DNA from viable bacterial cells. In this study, we compared the abilities of EMA and PMA, together with real-time PCR, to specifically distinguish dead Legionella cells from viable cells. Several experiments showed that PMA or EMA treatment could specifically prevent the PCR amplification of DNA from dead Legionella cells in water samples. However, a 4-fold higher concentration of PMA than EMA was required to achieve this effect. EMA may therefore be more useful for practical environmental investigations of Legionella.

Hiroi M.,Shizuoka Institute of Environment and Hygiene
Japanese journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2012

The serotype, Shiga toxin (Stx) type, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of 138 Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from humans between 2003 and 2007 in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan were characterized. The predominant O serogroups of the STEC isolates were O157, O26, and O111. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the STEC isolates showed that 31 of the 138 isolates (22.5%) were resistant to antibiotics. Compared to the results reported in the previous studies, a higher rate of STEC O157 isolates were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents used in this study. However, antimicrobial susceptibility data from this study showed that antimicrobial resistance patterns have increased by 6 compared to the survey performed by Masuda et al. between 1987 and 2002 (Jpn. J. Food Microbiol., 21, 44-51, 2004). This indicates that STEC isolates have evolved to show a variety of antimicrobial resistance patterns. It is important to consider the population of isolates showing decreased susceptibility to clinically relevant drugs such as ciprofloxacin (CPFX) and fosfomycin (FOM). All the 3 STEC isolates resistant to nalidixic acid showed low susceptibility to CPFX (MIC, 0.25-0.5 μg/ml). In addition, a decreased susceptibility to FOM was clearly observed in the E. coli O26 isolates. Our findings also showed that 1 STEC O26 strain could possibly be a chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase hyperproducer. These results suggest that antimicrobial therapy may be less effective in patients with non-O157 STEC infections than in those with STEC O157 infections.

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