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Pilaniya K.,Shivdan Singh Institute of Technology and Management | Chandrawanshi H.K.,VNS Institute of Pharmacy | Pilaniya U.,VNS Institute of Pharmacy | Manchandani P.,S.G.S.I.T.S. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research | Year: 2010

Various regulatory authorities such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), the United States Food and Drug administration (FDA), and the Canadian Drug and Health Agency (CDHA) are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). The various sources of impurity in pharmaceutical products are-reagents, heavy metals, ligands, catalysts, other materials like filter aids, charcoal, and the like, degraded end products obtained during\after manufacturing of bulk drugs from hydrolysis, photolytic cleavage, oxidative degradation, decarboxylation, enantiomeric impurity, and so on. The different pharmacopoeias such as the British Pharmacopoeia, United State Pharmacopoeia, and Indian Pharmacopoeia are slowly incorporating limits to allowable levels of impurities present in APIs or formulations. Various methods are used to isolate and characterize impurities in pharmaceuticals, such as, capillary electrophoresis, electron paramagnetic resonance, gas-liquid chromatography, gravimetric analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction methods, liquid-liquid extraction method, Ultraviolet Spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, supercritical fluid extraction column chromatography, mass spectrometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and RAMAN spectroscopy. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Mass Spectroscopy (MS), LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. Source

Hasnain M.S.,Shri Venkateshwara University | Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Singh M.,Shivdan Singh Institute of Technology and Management | Tabish M.,Shaqra University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2016

Alginate-based bipolymeric-nanobioceramic composite matrices for sustained drug release were developed through incorporation of nano-hydroxyapatite [nHAp] powders within ionotropically-gelled calcium ion-induced alginate-poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) blends polymeric systems. nHAp powders were synthesized by precipitation technique using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and orthophosphoric acid [H3PO4] as raw materials. The average particle size of these was synthesized. nHAp powders was found as 19.04 nm and used to prepare nHAp-alginate-PVP beads containing DS. These beads exhibited drug entrapment efficiency (%) of 65.82±1.88 to 94.45±3.72% and average bead sizes of 0.98±0.07 to 1.23±0.15 mm. These beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. Various nHAp-alginate-PVP beads containing DS exhibited prolonged sustained drug release and followed the Koresmeyer-Peppas model of drug release (R2=0.9908-0.9978) with non-Fickian release (anomalous transport) mechanism (n=0.73-0.84) for drug release over 8 h. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Alam M.S.,Jazan University | Ali M.S.,Jazan University | Alam N.,Jazan University | Alam M.I.,Jazan University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2012

Psoriasis is a chronic T lymphocyte mediated autoimmune inflammatory disorder that affects the skin, joints, and tendons. Betamethasone dipropionate (BD) has anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive,and antiproliferative activity. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate a nanoemulsion topical gel of betamethasone dipropionate. For the preparation of nanoemulsion eucalyptus oil and babchi oil was taken. Nanomulsions were prepared by aqueous phase-titration method. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed for the identification of nanoemulsion existence zones. Prepared nanoemulsions were subjected to different thermodynamic stability tests and characterized for droplet size, viscosity and refractive index. In vitro skin permeation of betamethasone dipropionate through rat abdominal skin was determined by the Franz diffusion cell. The prepared nanoemulsion gel is a potential vehicle for improved topical delivery of BD for better treatment of psoriasis. Source

Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Kalia S.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Hasnain M.S.,Shivdan Singh Institute of Technology and Management
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2013

The paper describes development of aceclofenac-loaded pectinate-poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) [PVP] beads through ionotropic-gelation. Effects of amount of pectin and PVP on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 6h (R6h) were optimized by using response surface methodology. The optimized beads showed DEE of 96.58±4.15% and R6h of 41.62±2.18% with controlled drug release pattern. FTIR spectroscopy analysis revealed possible intermolecular hydrogen bonding, which could be formed between CO groups of PVP and OH groups of pectin in these beads. The swelling of these beads were influenced by pH of the medium. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Raghvendra,P.A. College | Sharma V.,P.A. College | Shakya A.,P.A. College | Hedaytullah M.,Shivdan Singh Institute of Technology and Management | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2011

Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments ranging from red to blue to purple shades that provide the colour in certain flowers and fruits (red, blue and purple tints in apples, berries, red grapes, eggplant, red cabbage and radishes). They are synthesized by organisms of the plant kingdom and bacteria, and have been observed to occur in all tissues of higher plants, providing colour in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Anthocyanins consist of sugar molecules bound to a benzopyrylium salt (called anthocyanidin). Anthocyanins are synthesized by organisms in the plant kingdom, and have been observed to occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves and stems. Anthocyanins exist only in plants with bright colours in everything from flower petals to autumn leaves and edible fruits or vegetables. Chemical identification studies reveal that there are as many as 600 unique anthocyanins in nature. It has been found that anthocyanins have shown potential health effects against various disorders like cancer, aging, neurological diseases, inflammation, diabetes as well as bacterial infections. Anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids that are uniformly, predictably produced in rigorously controlled plant cell culture systems can be a great advantage for health and nutrition research because they are quickly, easily isolated, lack interferences found in whole fruits, can be elicited to provoke rapid and prolific accumulation, and are amenable to biolabeling so that metabolic fate can be investigated after ingestion. This article presents a brief review of Anthocyanins with an emphasis on their chemical and potential aspects. Source

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