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Asai J.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Takenaka H.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Hirakawa S.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine | Sakabe J.-I.,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Impaired wound healing is a major complication of diabetes. Recent studies have reported reduced lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis during diabetic wound healing, which are thought to be new therapeutic targets. Statins have effects beyond cholesterol reduction and can stimulate angiogenesis when used systemically. However, the effects of topically applied statins on wound healing have not been well investigated. The present study tested the hypothesis that topical application of simvastatin would promote lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis during wound healing in genetically diabetic mice. A full-thickness skin wound was generated on the back of the diabetic mice and treated with simvastatin or vehicle topically. Simvastatin administration resulted in significant acceleration of wound recovery, which was notable for increases in both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, simvastatin promoted infiltration of macrophages, which produced vascular endothelial growth factor C in granulation tissues. In vitro, simvastatin directly promoted capillary morphogenesis and exerted an antiapoptotic effect on lymphatic endothelial cells. These results suggest that the favorable effects of simvastatin on lymphangiogenesis are due to both a direct influence on lymphatics and indirect effects via macrophages homing to the wound. In conclusion, a simple strategy of topically applied simvastatin may have significant therapeutic potential for enhanced wound healing in patients with impaired microcirculation such as that in diabetes. © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology.

Hasegawa T.,Shiseido Functional Food Research and Development Center | Shimada H.,Shiseido Innovative Science Research Center | Uchiyama T.,Shiseido Functional Food Research and Development Center | Ueda O.,Shiseido Functional Food Research and Development Center | And 2 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2011

In this study, we investigated whether dietary glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and its metabolite sphingoid bases, sphingosine (SS), phytosphingosine (PS), sphingadienine (SD) and 4-hydroxysphingenine (4HS), influence cornified envelope (CE) formation. CE is formed during terminal differentiation of the epidermis through crosslinking of specific precursor proteins by transglutaminases (TGases), and is essential for the skin's barrier function. Oral administration of GlcCer (0.25 mg/day) for 14 consecutive days dramatically reduced transepidermal water loss, an indicator of the skin barrier condition, in hairless mice with barrier perturbation induced by single-dose ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The GlcCer treatment also increased the level of TGase-1 mRNA in UVB-irradiated murine epidermis approximately 1.6-fold compared with the control. Further, all four sphingoid bases at 1 μM concentration enhanced CE formation of cultured normal human keratinocyte cells. Among them, SS, PS and SD, but not 4HS, stimulated production of involucrin, one of the CE major precursor proteins. SD increased the expression of TGase-1 mRNA, while SS increased the expression of TGase-3 mRNA. These results indicate that the skin barrier improvement induced by oral GlcCer treatment might be at least partly due to a reinforcement of CE formation in the epidermis mediated by sphingoid bases metabolically derived from GlcCer. © 2011 AOCS.

Matsumoto-Okazaki Y.,Shiseido Innovative Science Research Center | Furuse M.,Kobe University | Kajiya K.,Shiseido Innovative Science Research Center
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2012

Acute exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation (290-320 nm) leads to epidermal hyperplasia, erythema and oedema formation. We have elucidated that UV irradiation induced the leakiness of cutaneous lymphatic vessels. Although these studies indicated a crucial role of the lymphatic integrity in skin inflammation, the mechanisms underlying its disruption by UVB exposure remain unknown. Here we demonstrated that a vascular-specific tight junction molecule, claudin-5 has an important role in lymphatics and skin inflammation. Claudin-5+/- mice, whose claudin-5 expression was greatly downregulated in skin, exacerbates oedema formation and inflammation by a low dose of UVB irradiation. Lymphatic vessels of claudin-5+/- mice were markedly enlarged and leaky after low-dose UVB exposure, compared with those of wild-type mice, while the morphology of blood vessels were not different between groups. These results suggest that claudin-5 in the lymphatic tight junction maintains lymphatic integrity and plays a protective role in skin inflammation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Sawane M.,Shiseido Innovative Science Research Center | Kidoya H.,Osaka University | Muramatsu F.,Osaka University | Takakura N.,Osaka University | Kajiya K.,Shiseido Innovative Science Research Center
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2011

Apelin, the ligand of the G proteincoupled receptor APJ, is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis, and vessel formation. Recent reports indicate that apelin secreted from endothelial cells mediates APJ regulation of blood vessel caliber size; however, the function of apelin in lymphatic vessels is unclear. Here we report that APJ was expressed by human lymphatic endothelial cells and that apelin induced migration and cord formation of lymphatic endothelial cells dose-dependently in vitro. Furthermore, permeability assays demonstrated that apelin stabilizes lymphatic endothelial cells. In vivo, transgenic mice harboring apelin under the control of keratin 14 (K14-apelin) exhibited attenuated UVB-induced edema and a decreased number of CD11b-positive macrophages. Moreover, activation of apelin/APJ signaling inhibited UVB-induced enlargement of lymphatic and blood vessels. Finally, K14-apelin mice blocked the hyperpermeability of lymphatic vessels in inflamed skin. These results indicate that apelin plays a functional role in the stabilization of lymphatic vessels in inflamed tissues and that apelin might be a suitable target for prevention of UVB-induced inflammation. © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Yamamoto-Tanaka M.,Shiseido Innovative Science Research Center | Yamamoto-Tanaka M.,Tokyo Medical University | Makino T.,University of Toyama | Motoyama A.,Shiseido Innovative Science Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2014

Loss of the nucleus is a critical step in keratinocyte terminal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we focused on two characteristic events: nuclear translocation of N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin and caspase-14-dependent degradation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). First, we demonstrated that epidermal mesotrypsin liberated a 55-kDa N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin (FLG-N) and FLG-N was translocated into the nucleus. Interestingly, these cells became TUNEL positive. Mutation in the mesotrypsin-susceptible Arg-rich region between FLG-N and the first filaggrin domain abolished these changes. Furthermore, caspase-14 caused limited proteolysis of ICAD, followed by accumulation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in TUNEL-positive nuclei. Knockdown of both proteases resulted in a significant increase of remnant nuclei in a skin equivalent model. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both caspase-14 and mesotrypsin were markedly downregulated in parakeratotic areas of lesional skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Collectively, our results indicate that at least two pathways are involved in the DNA degradation process during keratinocyte terminal differentiation. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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