Minato-ku, Japan
Minato-ku, Japan

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Hatakeyama S.,University of Tokyo | Iwatsuki-Horimoto K.,Shirokanedai | Okamoto K.,University of Tokyo | Nukui Y.,University of Tokyo | And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

We evaluated the immune response to a 2009 influenza A (H1N1) unadjuvanted vaccine in HIV-infected patients and assessed the boosting effect of a second dose. HIV-infected adults were enrolled and scheduled to receive the H1N1 unadjuvanted vaccine containing 15. μg of A/California/7/2009 haemagglutinin. Anti-H1N1 antibody titers were measured at enrollment and 4-8 weeks after each vaccination by using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (NT) assays. One hundred and four patients were analyzed. Seroconversion, as measured by using HI and NT assays, was observed in 52 (50.0%) patients and 49 (47.1%) patients, respectively, after the first dose. Seroconversion rate evaluated by using NT, but not HI, antibody titers was associated with HIV RNA levels of <400. copies/ml (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.15-8.96). Other parameters, including CD4 cell count, were not associated with seroconversion. In a cohort that received two vaccine doses at a 4-8-week interval (n=54), the seroconversion rate and geometric mean titer for HI antibodies were 44.4% (95% CI, 30.8-58.1%) and 30.5 (95% CI, 19.9-46.9) after the first dose, respectively, and 48.1% (95% CI, 34.4-61.9%) and 39.0 (95% CI, 26.1-58.2) after the second dose, respectively. Among HIV-infected patients, the seroconversion rate was around 50% after the first dose of unadjuvanted vaccine. A second dose of vaccine had a limited boosting effect on immunity in this patient cohort. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tamura D.,Shirokanedai | Tamura D.,Jichi Medical University | Sugaya N.,Keiyu Hospital | Ozawa M.,Tokyo International University | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Although influenza virus resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir is reported less frequently than is resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in clinical settings, it is unknown whether this difference is due to the limited use of zanamivir or to an inherent property of the drug. We therefore compared the prevalence of drug-resistant viruses and virus shedding in seasonal influenza virus-infected children treated with either oseltamivir or zanamivir. Methods: Clinical specimens (throat or nasal swab) were collected from a total of 144 pediatric influenza patients during the 2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant mutants were detected among the isolated viruses by sequencing the viral hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Sensitivity of the viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors was tested by neuraminidase inhibition assay. Results: In oseltamivir-or zanamivir-treated influenza patients who were statistically comparable in their age distribution, vaccination history, and type or subtype of virus isolates, the virus-shedding period in zanamivirtreated patients was significantly shorter than that in oseltamivir-treated patients. Furthermore, the frequency of zanamivir-resistant viruses was significantly lower than that of oseltamivir-resistant viruses. Conclusion: In comparison with treatment with oseltamivir, treatment of pediatric patients with zanamivir resulted in the emergence of fewer drug-resistant influenza viruses and a shorter virus-shedding period. We conclude that zanamivir shows promise as a better therapy for pediatric influenza patients. © The Author 2011.

Ashida H.,Shirokanedai | Mimuro H.,Shirokanedai | Ogawa M.,Shirokanedai | Kobayashi T.,Shirokanedai | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Host cell death is an intrinsic immune defense mechanism in response to microbial infection. However, bacterial pathogens use many strategies to manipulate the host cell death and survival pathways to enhance their replication and survival. This manipulation is quite intricate, with pathogens often suppressing cell death to allow replication and then promoting it for dissemination. Frequently, these effects are exerted through modulation of the mitochondrial pro-death, NF-κB-dependent pro-survival, and inflammasome-dependent host cell death pathways during infection. Understanding the molecular details by which bacterial pathogens manipulate cell death pathways will provide insight into new therapeutic approaches to control infection. © 2011 Ashida et al.

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