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Abbott R.W.,Shire Pharmaceuticals
Bioanalysis | Year: 2010

The European Bioanalysis Forum is a bioanalytical discussion group comprised of European pharmaceutical companies (27 members to date). The membership share a common vision to advance the shared understanding of topical concerns through discussion of scientific, technological and regulatory issues of bioanalytical interest. The 2nd Annual Open Symposium was much anticipated after the success of the first one. The symposium included sessions on the European Medicines Agency draft bioanalytical guidance, challenges in the analysis and validation of biomarkers, metabolite quantification issues, dried blood spot technology, the analysis of proteins and peptides by MS, latest hot topics in ligand-binding assays, unresolved issues in method validation and a plenary session from the Platinum sponsors. Experts and key opinion leaders were invited as guest speakers. A total of 420 delegates (up from 251 delegates in 2008) attended from 160 organizations, representing a large percentage of the European and international bioanalytical community. In addition to 40 oral presentations, 72 posters were presented and there was a vendor exposition of 35 companies. © 2010 Future Science Ltd.

DeRosa F.,Shire Pharmaceuticals
Gene Therapy | Year: 2016

DNA-based gene therapy has considerable therapeutic potential, but the challenges associated with delivery continue to limit progress. Messenger RNA (mRNA) has the potential to provide for transient production of therapeutic proteins, without the need for nuclear delivery and without the risk of insertional mutagenesis. Here we describe the sustained delivery of therapeutic proteins in vivo in both rodents and non-human primates via nanoparticle-formulated mRNA. Nanoparticles formulated with lipids and lipid-like materials were developed for delivery of two separate mRNA transcripts encoding either human erythropoietin (hEPO) or factor IX (hFIX) protein. Dose-dependent protein production was observed for each mRNA construct. Upon delivery of hEPO mRNA in mice, serum EPO protein levels reached several orders of magnitude (>125 000-fold) over normal physiological values. Further, an increase in hematocrit (Hct) was established, demonstrating that the exogenous mRNA-derived protein maintained normal activity. The capacity of producing EPO in non-human primates via delivery of formulated mRNA was also demonstrated as elevated EPO protein levels were observed over a 72-h time course. Exemplifying the possible broad utility of mRNA drugs, therapeutically relevant amounts of human FIX (hFIX) protein were achieved upon a single intravenous dose of hFIX mRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles in mice. In addition, therapeutic value was established within a hemophilia B (FIX knockout (KO)) mouse model by demonstrating a marked reduction in Hct loss following injury (incision) to FIX KO mice.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 30 June 2016; doi:10.1038/gt.2016.46. © 2016 The Author(s)

Hodgkins P.,Shire Pharmaceuticals | Shaw M.,Norgine Pharmaceuticals | Coghill D.,University of Dundee | Hechtman L.,McGill University
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among school-aged children. It is highly symptomatic and associated with significant impairment. This review examines the role of stimulant medications in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. Published clinical studies that compared methylphenidate- and amfetaminebased stimulants in children and adolescents with ADHD support the therapeutic utility of stimulant treatments, and suggest robust efficacy and acceptable safety outcomes in groups treated with either stimulant. Evidence-based guidelines agree that each patient with ADHD is unique and individual treatment strategies that incorporate both drug and non-drug treatment options should be sought. In seeking to optimize individual response and outcomes to stimulant therapy, important considerations include the selection of stimulant class, the choice of long- or short-acting stimulant formulations, addressing effectively any emergent adverse effects and strategies aimed at enhancing adherence to dosing regimen and persistence on therapy. © The Author(s) 2012.

Steer C.,Victoria Hospital | Froelich J.,University of Heidelberg | Soutullo C.A.,University of Navarra | Johnson M.,Child Neuropsychiatry Unit | Shaw M.,Shire Pharmaceuticals
CNS Drugs | Year: 2012

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional, clinical and economic burdens. It is among the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, and often persists into adulthood. Both medication and psychosocial interventions are recommended for the treatment of ADHD. However, ADHD treatment practices vary considerably, depending on medication availability, reimbursement and the evolution of clinical practice in each country. In Europe, stimulants and atomoxetine are widely available medications for the treatment of ADHD, whereas in the US approved treatment options also include extended-release formulations of clonidine and guanfacine. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting, prodrug formulation of dexamfetamine. It is currently licensed in the US, Canada and Brazil, and is undergoing phase III studies in Europe. We performed a PubMedMEDLINE search looking for recent (20052012) scientific papers regarding the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine. The lisdexamfetamine molecule is therapeutically inactive and is enzymatically hydrolysed, primarily in the blood, to the active dexamfetamine. This conversion is unaffected by gastrointestinal pH and variations in normal transit times. Lisdexamfetamine was developed with the goal of providing an extended duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day. Clinical trials have demonstrated robust clinical efficacy of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of children, adolescents and adults with ADHD with dose-dependent improvements in the core symptoms of ADHD. Studies have further shown that the duration of action of lisdexamfetamine continues for 13 hours post-dosing in children and for 14 hours in adults. The tolerability profile of lisdexamfetamine is consistent with those of other stimulant medications, with decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain and irritability among the more frequent treatment-emergent adverse events, most of which are mild to moderate in intensity and transient in nature. There are currently no parallel-group, head-to-head trial data comparing the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine with other medications for ADHD. However, the available data, including a large effect size and consistent plasma concentrations throughout the day, suggest that lisdexamfetamine is a useful treatment option for patients with ADHD. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.

Damment S.J.P.,Shire Pharmaceuticals
Renal Failure | Year: 2011

Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [32P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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