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Jones S.A.,University of Manchester | Parini R.,University of Milan Bicocca | Harmatz P.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute | Giugliani R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) is a rare and life-limiting multisystemic disorder with an X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. Short stature is a prominent feature of this condition. This analysis aimed to investigate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase on growth in patients enrolled in HOS - the Hunter Outcome Survey which is a multinational observational database. As of Jan 2012, height data before treatment were available for 567 of 740 males followed prospectively after HOS entry. Cross-sectional analysis showed that short stature became apparent after approximately 8. years of age; before this, height remained within the normal range. Age-corrected standardized height scores (z-scores) before and after treatment were assessed using piecewise regression model analysis in 133 patients (8-15. years of age at treatment start; data available on ≥ 1 occasion within +/- 24. months of treatment start; growth hormone-treated patients excluded). Results showed that the slope after treatment (slope = - 0.005) was significantly improved compared with before treatment (slope = - 0.043) (difference = 0.038, p = 0.004). Analysis of covariates (age at treatment start, cognitive involvement, presence of puberty at the start of ERT, mutation type, functional classification), showed a significant influence on growth of mutation type (height deficit in terms of z-scores most pronounced in patients with deletions/large rearrangements/nonsense mutations, p < 0.0001) and age (most pronounced in the 12-15-year group, p < 0.0001). Cognitive involvement, pubertal status at the start of ERT and functional classification were not related to the growth deficit or response to treatment. In conclusion, the data showed an improvement in growth rate in patients with Hunter syndrome following idursulfase treatment.© 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Shen M.,University of Kentucky | Eyras E.,University Pompeu Fabra | Eyras E.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | Wu J.,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2011

We describe a new method that allows cloning of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that are generated in RNase protection experiments. We demonstrate that the mouse C/D box snoRNA MBII-85 (SNORD116) is processed into at least five shorter RNAs using processing sites near known functional elements of C/D box snoRNAs. Surprisingly, the majority of cloned RNAs from RNase protection experiments were derived from endogenous cellular RNA, indicating widespread antisense expression. The cloned dsRNAs could be mapped to genome areas that show RNA expression on both DNA strands and partially overlapped with experimentally determined argonaute-binding sites. The data suggest a conserved processing pattern for some C/D box snoRNAs and abundant expression of longer, non-coding RNAs in the cell that can potentially form dsRNAs. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

Cohn G.M.,Shire Inc | Morin I.,Shire Human Genetic Therapies | Whiteman D.A.H.,Shire Inc
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

The Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS), an international, long-term observational registry of patients with Hunter syndrome, was used to develop a simple mnemonic screening tool (HUNTER) to aid in the diagnosis of Hunter syndrome. Data regarding the prediagnosis prevalence of ten specific signs and symptoms present in individual patients enrolled in the HOS were used to develop the HUNTER mnemonic screening tool. A total score of 6 or greater using a weighting scheme in which certain manifestations were assigned a weight of 2 (facial dysmorphism, nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea, enlarged tongue, enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, joint stiffness) and others assigned a weight of 1 (hernia, hearing impairment, enlarged tonsils, airway obstruction or sleep apnea) correctly identified 95 % of patients who had no family history of Hunter syndrome or who were not diagnosed prenatally. No association between age at diagnosis and HUNTER score was found. Conclusion: The HUNTER mnemonic appears to be a useful screening tool. Further validation in the clinical setting will be necessary to confirm its utility. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Kostenko V.,University of Calgary | Lyczak J.,Shire Human Genetic Therapies | Turner K.,Attogen, Inc | Martinuzzi R.J.,University of Calgary
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

The long-term antimicrobial efficacy of silver dressings against bacterial biofilms was investigated in a 7-day treatment in vitro model where the protein-rich medium was refreshed daily in order to mimic the conditions found in a wound bed. The use of plate-to-plate transfer assays demonstrated measurable differences in the effectivenesses of several silver dressings on the viability of biofilm bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Whereas after the first day of treatment, all dressings used resulted in a significant reduction in the number of viable cells in the biofilms and disruption of the biofilm colonies, during prolonged treatment, the efficacy of dressings with hydrophilic base materials diminished with daily transfers, and bacterial populations recovered. For dressings with hydrophobic base materials, the level of efficacy correlated with the silver species loaded. Biofilm bacteria, which survived the initial silver treatment, were susceptible to tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in contrast to untreated biofilms, which were highly tolerant to the same antibiotics. This acquired susceptibility was unaffected by the longevity of pretreatment with the silver dressings but depended on the dressing used. The antimicrobial efficacy of the dressings correlated with the type of the dressing base material and silver species loaded. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Martiniuk F.,New York University | Giovinazzo J.,New York University | Tan A.U.,New York University | Shahidullah R.,Brooklyn College | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background: Leprosy was the first disease classified according to the thymus derived T-cell in the 1960s and the first disease classified by the cytokine profile as intact interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL2) or TH1 (tuberculoid) and deficient IFN-γ and IL2 or TH2 (lepromatous), in the 1980s. Objective: In the present study, we set out to explore the T helper 17 (TH17) lymphocyte subset, the hallmark of T-cell plasticity, in skin biopsies from patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) who were treated with thalidomide. Method: RNA was extracted from paraffin embedded tissue before and after thalidomide treatment of ENL and RT-PCR was performed. Results: IL17A, the hallmark of TH17, was consistently seen before and after thalidomide treatment, confirming the TH17 subset to be involved in ENL and potentially up-regulated by thalidomide. Conclusion: A reduction in CD70, GARP, IDO, IL17B (IL-20), and IL17E (IL-25), coupled with increases in RORγT, ARNT, FoxP3, and IL17C (IL-21) following thalidomide treatment, opens the door to understanding the complexity of the immunomodulatory drug thalidomide, which can operate as an anti-inflammatory while simultaneously stimulating cell-mediated immunity (CMI). We conclude that TH17 is involved in the immunopathogenesis of ENL and that thalidomide suppresses inflammatory components of TH17, while enhancing other components of TH17 that are potentially involved in CMI. © 2012-Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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