Shiraz, Iran

Shiraz University of Medical science is a public medical school located in Shiraz, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 8000 students studying for 83 different degrees, and a staff of nearly 18,000 faculty and personnel. as it is one of the best medical universities in Iran,it has established an International Branch.students of this branch study their terms in English.With 13 hospitals, SUMS is a regional health care provider and the main medical center in Fars Province. Wikipedia.


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Ghanizadeh A.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Hyperthermia | Year: 2011

Autism is neuropsychiatric disorder in which a hyperglutamate state may play a role. It is suggested here that fever or hyperthermia may be able to alter glutamate levels in the brain and may therefore be able to impact on the symptoms of autism. More study on this possibility is clearly warranted. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.


Zargaran A.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014

The Sassanid Empire in Persia (224-637 AD) ruled one of the most influential eras in world history. They with the Romans and later the Byzantines were two global powers in ancient times. Medicine was well organized in the official Sassanid system. Hospitals, medical centers, and universities were developed throughout Persia during their reign. This study brings to light for the first time the era's medical views on the heart and blood, based on extant Sassanid Pahlavi manuscripts and documents. Although these documents are non-medical texts (because Sassanid medical texts were destroyed in attacks on Iran by neighboring powers, such as Alexander the Macedonian and leaders of the Arab Empire throughout history), some novel theories on the history of cardiology can be found among them. Physicians of that time made a preliminary description of pulmonary circulation. They knew about the role of blood circulation in feeding bodily organs. They believed that blood is a factor for spreading infection because of its invisible monsters (divan). Their beliefs can be considered as the first theories on infection due to an external living factor, today known as the microbe. Other Sassanid beliefs and findings about the heart and blood in medicine are described in this review. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Khajehdehi P.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Nephropathology | Year: 2012

Context: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a wild plant of the ginger family native to tropical South Asia. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Results: Emerging evidence indicate that turmeric/curcumin inhibits cytokines and TGF-β production. From the various factors involved in the genesis of chronic kidney disease and pathogenesis of primary and secondary glomerulonehritis, TGF-β has emerged as a key factor in the cascade of events. Leading to glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and end-stage renal disease. Conclusions: considering the inhibitory effect of turmeric/curcumin on cytokines and TGF-β, it seems wise to assume that supplementary turmeric/curcumin might be a candidate remedy for chronic kidney disease and possibly prevention of subsequent end stage renal disease. © 2012, Society of Diabetic Nephropathy Prevention. All rights reserved.


Mahmoudi L.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences | Year: 2013

Severe sepsis is a major problem as cause of high rates morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICU). Aminoglycosides are an important group of antimicrobials used for severe sepsis. However, aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics in ICU patients may be altered during sepsis, which can affect the drug concentrations. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine the relationship between amikacin disposition kinetics after a 25 mg/kg loading dose and hemodynamic response to sepsis, as well as clinical parameters, in a population of critically ill patients. In this work, 30 patients who were candidate to amikacin therapy following Gram negative sepsis were enrolled. The pharmacokinetic profile of amikacin by a non-compartmental model was calculated for each patient. Mean volume of distribution was 0.36 ± 0.07 L/kg and mean serum amikacin clearance was 3.88 ± 0.97 ml/min/kg. In the case of Vd, APACHE II score correlation was significant. In the case of amikacin clearance, two covariates including creatinine clearance and Sr Cr significant correlation was found. It appears necessary to use higher amikacin dosage (≥ 25 mg/kg) considering hemodynamic response of patients to sepsis. To achieve therapeutic drug concentration a close drug monitoring and a shift from the population mean toward a value more representative of the critically ill patient subpopulation is crucial.  


Sonic hedgehog signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor play a neuro-protective role against oxidative stress in autism. Sonic hedgehog also increases Bcl-2 expression and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The level or activity of Bcl-2, brainderived neurotrophic factor, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase are decreased in autism. Sonic hedgehog also decreases the production of malondialdehyde that its level is high in autism. Therefore, it is supposed that sonic hedgehogmay be associated with oxidative stress in autism through other pathways too. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Ghaderi A.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Immunology | Year: 2011

Gene association studies are less appealing in cancer compared to autoimmune diseases. Complexity, heterogeneity, variation in histological types, age at onset, short survival, and acute versus chronic conditions are cancer related factors which are different from an organ specific autoimmune disease, such as Grave's disease, on which a large body of multicentre data is accumulated. For years the focus of attention was on diversity and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex in respect to human diseases specially the autoimmune diseases, but in recent years, access to other human gene sequences prompted investigators to focus on genes encoding the immune regulatory proteins such as the co-stimulatory, adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokines and their receptors. Among them, CTLA4 (CD152) has been in the centre of attention for its pivotal role in autoimmunity and cancer. Although not fully understood, CTLA4 with no doubt plays an important role in the maintenance of the immune response by its expression on activated and regulatory T cells. CTLA4 (Gene ID:1493, MIM number:123890) has many variants and polymorphic forms, some present in regulatory positions, some in 3' UTR and the most important one in the leader sequence (+49 A/G). As a pivotal regulatory element of the immune responses magnitude, CTLA4 could be considered as a two-blade knife, for which only the optimal expression ensures an effective, but at the same time, safe immune response. It can accordingly be speculated that CTLA4 alleles associated with extraordinary expression could make a person more susceptible to tumor growth and/or progression. On the other hand, alleles associated with a compromised CTLA4 expression/function may accelerate the formation and/or manifestation of inflammatory autoimmune disorder. I hypothesized a spectrum of the functional dichotomy of CTLA4 SNPs diverging from autoimmunity to cancer. To examine these hypotheses, results from previously published investigations on CTLA4 polymorphisms together with the work done by our own group are discussed in details. Because the most published data are about the polymorphism at position +49, I concentrated on this position; however the data regarding other SNPs are also included for comparison. To support the significance of CTLA4 gene variation in these two major human diseases evidences from organ transplantation are also included. As will be discussed in the manuscript, our work and reports by others from a normal population perspective support the hypothesis that individuals inheriting a GG genotype at position +49, for which lower CTLA4 expression has been extensively suggested, are more susceptible for developing autoimmune disorders and those with AA genotype, with an existence of a state of self-tolerance, may have a higher chance of developing cancer. CTLA4 SNPs may accordingly be considered as a crucial element, along with other known or yet unknown mechanisms, in keeping the immune balance in predisposed individuals to cancer and autoimmunity. Although an spectrum line can be drawn between autoimmunity and cancer by considering published data regarding CTLA4 +49 polymorphism, the extreme functional dichotomy of this SNP appears to be more complex and difficult to understand, but there is no doubt that the future investigations will resolve most ambiguities.


Ghasemi R.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2013

Arduous efforts have been made in the last three decades to elucidate the role of insulin in the brain. A growing number of evidences show that insulin is involved in several physiological function of the brain such as food intake and weight control, reproduction, learning and memory, neuromodulation and neuroprotection. In addition, it is now clear that insulin and insulin disturbances particularly diabetes mellitus may contribute or in some cases play the main role in development and progression of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Focusing on the molecular mechanisms, this review summarizes the recent findings on the involvement of insulin dysfunction in neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease and also mental disorders like depression and psychosis sharing features of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.


There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. © 2013 Ahmad Ghanizadeh.


Ghanizadeh A.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2011

The exact pathophysiology of the neurodevelopment disorder of autism is not clear and there is not any curative approach for it. There is only one FDA-approved medication for its management. Therefore, providing of novel treatments is highly required. The hypofunction of GABAergic system and glutamate toxicity are generally believed to have a causal role for autism. The antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptor improves autism. Glycine is required for the activation of NMDA receptor. The antagonist of glycine site decreases NMDA receptor conductance. It is hypothesis that glycine site antagonists can be tested as a new strategy for the management of autism. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


METHODS: A computerized English language literature search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar was performed in September 2013. The terms, "Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO)" and "Helicobacter pylori", "H. pylori" and "prevalence" were used as key words in titles and/or abstracts. A complementary literature search was also performed in the following countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, The United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.AIM: To investigate the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among the healthy asymptomatic population in Iran and countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.RESULTS: In the electronic search, a total of 308 articles were initially identified. Of these articles, 26 relevant articles were identified and included in the study. There were 10 studies from Iran, 5 studies from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 4 studies from Egypt, 2 from the United Arab Emirates, and one study from Libya, Oman, Tunisia, and Lebanon, respectively. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in Iran, irrespective of time and age group, ranged from 30.6% to 82%. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection, irrespective of time and age group, in other EMRO countries ranged from 22% to 87.6%.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. pylori in EMRO countries is still high in the healthy asymptomatic population. Strategies to improve sanitary facilities, educational status, and socioeconomic status should be implemented to minimize H. pylori infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

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