Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics

Fukushima-shi, Japan

Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics

Fukushima-shi, Japan
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Sasaki S.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | Sasaki S.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Ibi T.,Okayama University | Ikeda S.,Cattle Breeding Development Institute of Kagoshima Prefecture | Sugimoto Y.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics
Animal Genetics | Year: 2014

Age at first calving (AFC) is an important trait for achieving earlier reproductive performance in cattle. To identify quantitative trait loci for AFC in Japanese Black cattle, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 866 animals with extreme AFC values selected from a larger group of 52 009 animals. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on bovine chromosome 2 that were associated with AFC. These SNPs were located within 112.8-kbp intronic region of delta/notch-like EGF repeat containing (DNER) and proved to be in a state of high linkage disequilibrium. The association was replicated in an independent sample of 2963 animals. In the replicated population, the frequency of the reduced AFC allele (Q) was 0.463, and the allele accounts for 8% of the total genetic variance. The effect of allele substitution on AFC was a decrease of 11.54 days. The results suggest that the Q allele could serve as a useful marker in Japanese Black cattle to select animals with superior AFC performance. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Sasaki S.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | Sasaki S.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Ibi T.,Okayama University | Watanabe T.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Calving efficiency can be described as the measure of a cow's ability to produce viable offspring within a specific period of time. This trait is crucial in beef cattle because calves are necessary both for the production of beef and for heifer replacements. Recently, the number of calves produced at 4 years of age (NCP4) has been used to evaluate the calving efficiency of Japanese Black cattle. To identify variants associated with calving efficiency in Japanese Black cattle, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 688 animals with extreme NCP4 values selected from 15,225 animals.Results: We identified genetic variants on bovine chromosome 12 (BTA12) that were associated with NCP4. The General Transcription Factor IIF, polypeptide 2 (GTF2F2), located in the 132 kbp-associated region, proved to be in strong linkage disequilibrium. We found 15 associated variants in the promoter and the 3' UTR regions. Consistent with this finding, transcripts of GTF2F2 derived from the haplotype (Q) with the increased number of calves were 1.33-fold more abundant than q-derived transcripts. Furthermore, luciferase assays revealed that the activity of the 3' UTR, a region that includes nine SNPs, was higher in constructs with the Q haplotype than in those with the q haplotype by approximately 1.35-fold. In contrast, the activity of the promoter region did not differ between haplotypes. The association was replicated in an independent sample of 827 animals that were randomly selected from the remainder of the cohort from the same farms used in the GWAS. In the replicated population, the frequency of the Q haplotype is 0.313, and this haplotype accounts for 2.69% of the total phenotypic variance. The effect of the Q to q haplotype substitution on NCP4 was 0.054 calves. These findings suggest that variants in the 3' UTR of GTF2F2 affect the level of GTF2F2 mRNA, which is associated with calving efficiency.Conclusions: This GWAS has identified variants in the 3' UTR of GTF2F2 that were associated with the NCP4 of Japanese Black cattle, and this association was validated in an independent sample. The Q haplotype will be immediately useful in improving the calving efficiency of Japanese Black cattle. © 2013 Sasaki et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sugimoto M.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Gotoh Y.,Holstein Cattle Association of Japan | Kawahara T.,Holstein Cattle Association of Japan | Sugimoto Y.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Conception rates among dairy cows in Japan have declined in recent decades. To enhance our understanding of the genes involved in conception rates, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 822 Holsteins and identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with conception rate: A+169G in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of unc-5 homolog C (UNC5C). Cows with higher conception rates carried the A polymorphism in the UNC5C 3'UTR. Luciferase assays and quantitative analysis of allele ratios revealed that UNC5C transcripts with the A polymorphism were expressed at higher levels than those carrying the G polymorphism. UNC5C transmits either pro- or anti-apoptotic signals depending on the availability of its ligand, Netrin-1. UNC5C expression is negatively regulated by reproductive homeobox X-linked 5 (Rhox5), and the Rhox5 locus is methylated by G9a methyltransferase. G9a-knockout mice have previously been demonstrated to be subfertile, and we found that UNC5C, G9a, and Netrin-1 expression levels increased from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage in fertilized murine embryos, whereas Rhox5 expression decreased. Repression of UNC5C, G9a, or Netrin-1 or forced expression of Rhox5 in the anterior nucleus stage inhibited development to the blastocyst stage, suggesting that cows carrying the G polymorphism in UNC5C might have lower conception rates because of the poor development of preimplantation embryos. This study provides novel insights into the role of UNC5C during embryonic development. Copyright: © 2015 Sugimoto et al.


Ogawa S.,Kyoto University | Matsuda H.,Kyoto University | Taniguchi Y.,Kyoto University | Watanabe T.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2014

Background: Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) density on genomic relationship matrix (G matrix), genetic variance explained and GE were investigated using the genotype data of about 40,000 SNPs and two statistical models.Results: Using all pairs of two adjacent SNPs in the whole SNP set, the means of LD (r2) at ranges 0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, 0.2-0.5 and 0.5-1 Mb were 0.22, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.08, respectively, and 25.7, 13.9, 10.4 and 6.4% of the r2 values exceeded 0.3, respectively. While about 90% of the genetic variance for carcass weight estimated using all available SNPs was explained using 4,000-6,000 SNPs, the corresponding percentage for marbling score was consistently lower. With the conventional linear model incorporating the G matrix, correlation between the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) obtained using 4,000 SNPs and all available SNPs was 0.99 for carcass weight and 0.98 for marbling score, with an underestimation of the former GEBVs, especially for marbling score.Conclusions: The Japanese Black is likely to be in a breed group with a relatively high extent of whole genome LD. The results indicated that the degree of marbling is controlled by only QTLs with relatively small effects, compared with carcass weight, and that using at least 4,000 equally-spaced SNPs, there is a possibility of ranking animals genetically for these carcass traits in this breed. © 2014 Ogawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Nishimura S.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | Watanabe T.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | Watanabe T.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Mizoshita K.,Cattle Breeding Development Institute of Kagoshima Prefecture | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: Significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for carcass weight were previously mapped on several chromosomes in Japanese Black half-sib families. Two QTL, CW-1 and CW-2, were narrowed down to 1.1-Mb and 591-kb regions, respectively. Recent advances in genomic tools allowed us to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in cattle to detect associations in a general population and estimate their effect size. Here, we performed a GWAS for carcass weight using 1156 Japanese Black steers.Results: Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significant associations were detected in three chromosomal regions on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 6, 8, and 14. The associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on BTA 6 were in linkage disequilibrium with the SNP encoding NCAPG Ile442Met, which was previously identified as a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide for CW-2. In contrast, the most highly associated SNP on BTA 14 was located 2.3-Mb centromeric from the previously identified CW-1 region. Linkage disequilibrium mapping led to a revision of the CW-1 region within a 0.9-Mb interval around the associated SNP, and targeted resequencing followed by association analysis highlighted the quantitative trait nucleotides for bovine stature in the PLAG1-CHCHD7 intergenic region. The association on BTA 8 was accounted for by two SNP on the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and corresponded to CW-3, which was simultaneously detected by linkage analyses using half-sib families. The allele substitution effects of CW-1, CW-2, and CW-3 were 28.4, 35.3, and 35.0 kg per allele, respectively.Conclusion: The GWAS revealed the genetic architecture underlying carcass weight variation in Japanese Black cattle in which three major QTL accounted for approximately one-third of the genetic variance. © 2012 Nishimura et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sugimoto M.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Sugimoto Y.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2012

Mastitis is a common infectious disease of the mammary gland and generates large losses in the dairy industry. By means of positional cloning and functional analysis techniques, we here show that insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) can possibly mediate susceptibility to mastitis through autophagy. Scanning the whole genome of cows (Bos taurus) that were susceptible or resistant to mastitis in the half-sib families revealed that susceptible cows had a relatively long stretch of cytosine residues (C stretch) in the 59 untranslated region of IGF1R. The forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like (FEZL) transcription factor, which was previously identified as a factor controlling mastitis resistance in the same half-sib families, bound the C stretch of IGF1R. The susceptible type of FEZL with a glycine stretch containing 13 glycines (13G) and the longer C stretch of IGF1R together enhanced expression of IGF1R. Enhancing IGF1R inhibited autophagy in response to Streptococcus agalactiae invasion of mammary epithelial cells, whereas treatment with rapamycin, a known inducer of autophagy, rescued it. Cows carrying the variant combination of 13GFEZL might be more susceptible to mastitis as the result of impaired autophagy. Our results suggest that IGF1R could control innate immunity in mammals and serve as a potential tool for preventing mastitis. © 2012 Sugimoto, Sugimoto.


Sugimoto M.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Watanabe T.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | Sugimoto Y.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Dystocia is a major problem for the dairy cattle industry, and the observed high rates of this condition stem from genetic selection to increase subsequent milk production of the calving female. Because smaller birth size does not adversely affect subsequent milk production, selecting for cows with a smaller birth size would reduce dystocia rates and be beneficial for both the cattle and the farmers. To identify genes that regulate birth weight, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1151 microsatellite markers and identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with birth weight: A-326G in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of solute carrier family 44, member 5 (SLC44A5). Cows with higher birth weights carried the A polymorphism in the SLC44A5 5′ UTR, and the presence of the A polymorphism correlated with a high rate of dystocia. Luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assays revealed that SLC44A5 transcripts with the A polymorphism are expressed at lower levels than those carrying the G polymorphism. SLC44A5 encodes a choline transporter-like protein, and choline is a component of the major phospholipids of cell membranes. Uptake studies in HeLa cells demonstrated that SLC44A5 knockdown reduces choline efflux, whereas SLC44A5 overexpression resulted in the opposite effect. Furthermore, cell viability assays indicated that SLC44A5 knockdown increased cell proliferation, whereas SLC44A5 overexpression repressed proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that calves with reduced SLC44A5 expression are larger due to enhanced cell proliferation. This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that control birth weight in Holsteins and suggests that SLC44A5 may serve as a potential target for preventing dystocia. © 2012 Sugimoto et al.


Hirano T.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | Matsuhashi T.,Gifu Prefectural Livestock Research Institute | Kobayashi N.,Gifu Prefectural Livestock Research Institute | Watanabe T.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | Sugimoto Y.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

Mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), a component of the extracellular microfibril, cause Marfan syndrome (MFS). Frequent observation of cattle with a normal withers height, but lower body weight than age-matched normal cattle, was recently reported among cattle sired by phenotypically normal Bull A, in Japanese Black cattle. These cattle also showed other characteristic features similar to the clinical phenotype of human MFS, such as a long phalanx proximalis, oval face and crystalline lens cloudiness. We first screened a paternal half-sib family comprising 36 affected and 10 normal offspring of Bull A using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip (illumina). Twenty-two microsatellite markers mapped to a significant region on BTA10 were subsequently genotyped on the family. The bovine Marfan syndrome-like disease (MFSL) was mapped onto BTA10. As FBN1 is located in the significant region, FBN1 was sequenced in Bull A, and three affected and one normal cattle. A G>A mutation at the intron64 splicing accepter site (c.8227-1G>A) was detected in 31 of 36 affected animals (84.7%). The c.8227-1G>A polymorphism was not found in 20 normal offspring of Bull A or in 93 normal cattle unrelated to Bull A. The mutation caused a 1-base shift of the intron64 splicing accepter site to the 3″ direction, and a 1-base deletion in processed mRNA. This 1-base deletion creates a premature termination codon, and a 125-amino acid shorter Fibrillin-1 protein is produced from the mutant mRNA. We therefore conclude that the c.8227-1G>A mutation is causative for MFSL. Furthermore, it was suggested that Bull A exhibited germline mosaicism for the mutation, and that the frequency of the mutant sperm was 14.9%. © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Setoguchi K.,Cattle Breeding Development Institute of Kagoshima Prefecture | Watanabe T.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics | Weikard R.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Albrecht E.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | And 4 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2011

Summary Recently, we had located a bovine carcass weight QTL, CW-2, to a 591-kb interval on BTA6 and have identified the SNP c.1326T>G in the NCAPG (non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G) gene that leads to the amino acid change p.Ile442Met in the NCAPG protein, which is a candidate causative variation. Here, we examined the association of the NCAPG:c.1326T>G locus with linear skeletal measurements of growth-associated traits during adolescence, which is a period of intensive growth, using two historically and geographically distant cattle populations: 792 Japanese Black steers and 161 F 2 bulls of an experimental cross from Charolais and German Holstein. In both populations, the SNP NCAPG:c.1326T>G was associated with each component of body frame size: height, length and width at puberty. The associations of CW-2 with height- and length-associated traits were observed at an earlier growth period compared to the associations with thickness- and width-associated traits, indicating that the primary effect of the CW-2 QTL may possibly be exerted on skeletal growth. The significant associations of the NCAPG:c.1326T>G locus with growth-associated skeletal measurements are similar to the effects of the syntenic region on human chromosome 4 that are associated with adult height in humans, supporting the hypothesis that CW-2 is analogous to the human locus and pointing to a conserved growth-associated locus or chromosomal region present in both species. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


PubMed | Rakuno Gakuen University, University of Khartoum, Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics and Hokkaido University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2017

Bovine Examinations on the bovine genomic BAC clone-confirmed to contain the Bovine and water buffalo

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