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Shippensburg, PA, United States

Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, commonly known as Ship, or SU, is a public university located in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, United States, 40 miles west-southwest of Harrisburg, and 53 miles northwest of Westminster, Maryland. It is one of the 14 state universities that compose the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education .Shippensburg University is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools . Wikipedia.


Woltemade C.J.,Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
Journal of the American Water Resources Association | Year: 2010

Soil disturbances such as excavation and compaction in residential developments affect lawn infiltration rates and stormwater runoff. These effects were investigated via measuring saturated infiltration rates at 108 residential sites and 18 agricultural sites near Shippensburg, south-central Pennsylvania, using a double-ring infiltrometer. Residential sites included four neighborhoods distributed across three soil series classified as hydrologic soil group (HSG) B. Additional parcel data included date of house construction, percentage impervious area, lawn condition, and woody vegetation condition. Measured infiltration rates ranged from 0 to >40 cm/hour. Analysis of variance indicated significantly different mean infiltration rates (p < 0.001) for lots constructed pre-2000 (9.0 cm/hour) and those constructed post-2000 (2.8 cm/hour). Test results were used to determine a " field-tested" HSG for each site, representing disturbed soil conditions. Stormwater runoff was estimated from residential lots for a range of 24-hour design storms using the TR-55 model and several alternative methods of determining curve numbers, including five different representations of soil conditions. Curve numbers and stormwater runoff were substantially higher when based on field-tested HSGs for lots constructed post-2000 compared with lots built pre-2000 and when based on the HSG for undisturbed soils, documenting the magnitude of possible error in stormwater runoff models that neglect soil disturbance. © 2010 American Water Resources Association. Source


This study assesses the impact of a juvenile detention risk assessment instrument (RAI) on decision-making in five New Jersey counties. It uses a pretest–posttest design, drawing on a sample of decisions matched across time periods using propensity scores (N = 1,432). It suggests that the RAI, supported by other reforms, lowers overall rates of detention. Though evidence is not strong, findings suggest the RAI may have reduced reliance on “perceptual shorthand” variables reflected in the juvenile’s age and the time of day of the decision. There is stronger evidence that the RAI increased reliance on the specific factors contained within its risk score. There is also evidence that RAI reduced disparities in detention rates across counties, perhaps by diminishing the importance of “going rates” for detention, rooted in local courtroom workgroups. © 2014 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Source


Lapointe N.W.R.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Light T.,Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2012

Aim Predicting and preventing invasions depends on knowledge of the factors that make ecosystems susceptible to invasion. Current studies generally rely on non-native species richness (NNSR) as the sole measure of ecosystem invasibility; however, species identity is a critical consideration, given that different ecosystems may have environmental characteristics suitable to different species. Our aim was to examine whether non-native freshwater fish community composition was related to ecosystem characteristics at the landscape scale. Location United States. Methods We described spatial patterns in non-native freshwater fish communities among watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States based on records of establishment in the U.S. Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. We described general relationships between non-native species and ecosystem characteristics using canonical correspondence analysis. We clustered watersheds by non-native fish community and described differences among clusters using indicator species analysis. We then assessed whether non-native communities could be predicted from ecosystem characteristics using random forest analysis and predicted non-native communities for uninvaded watersheds. We estimated which ecosystem characteristics were most important for predicting non-native communities using conditional inference trees. Results We identified four non-native fish communities, each with distinct indicator species. Non-native communities were predicted based on ecosystem characteristics with an accuracy of 80.6%, with temperature as the most important variable. Relatively uninvaded watersheds were predicted to be invasible by the most diverse non-native community. Main conclusions Non-native species identity is an important consideration when assessing ecosystem invasibility. NNSR alone is an insufficient measure of invasibility because ecosystems with equal NNSR may not be equally invasible by the same species. Our findings can help improve predictions of future invasions and focus management and policy decisions on particular species in highly invasible ecosystems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Reyns B.W.,Weber State University | Henson B.,Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania | Fisher B.S.,University of Cincinnati
Criminal Justice and Behavior | Year: 2011

Building upon Eck and Clarke's (2003) ideas for explaining crimes in which there is no face-to-face contact between victims and offenders, the authors developed an adapted lifestyle-routine activities theory. Traditional conceptions of place-based environments depend on the convergence of victims and offenders in time and physical space to explain opportunities for victimization. With their proposed cyberlifestyle-routine activities theory, the authors moved beyond this conceptualization to explain opportunities for victimization in cyberspace environments where traditional conceptions of time and space are less relevant. Cyberlifestyle-routine activities theory was tested using a sample of 974 college students on a particular type of cybervictimization-cyberstalking. The study's findings provide support for the adapted theoretical perspective. Specifically, variables measuring online exposure to risk, online proximity to motivated offenders, online guardianship, online target attractiveness, and online deviance were significant predictors of cyberstalking victimization. Implications for advancing cyberlifestyle-routine activities theory are discussed. © 2011 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology. Source


Miller J.,Rutgers University | Maloney C.,Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
Criminal Justice and Behavior | Year: 2013

This study examines practitioners' compliance and noncompliance with risk/needs assessment tools, using a national survey of frontline community corrections staff. Focusing on respondents required to complete tools and make decisions based on them, analysis showed that tools were mostly filled out when required, but decisions were not always based on the tool result. Latent class analysis suggests about half of the tool-using subgroup were "substantive" compliers who completed tools carefully and honestly and tended to use them for decision making. The remaining tool users were "formal" in their compliance: filling out the tools, but often making decisions that did not correspond with tool results, and in some cases even manipulating the information included in them. Multivariate analysis suggests that practitioners' belief in risk/needs tools, agency monitoring and training, perceptions of agency procedural justice, and agencies' projected confidence in their local risk/need tool may help explain patterns of compliance and noncompliance. © 2013 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology. Source

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