Kang S.-W.,Korea Conformity Laboratories |
Shim S.-B.,Shinpoong Pharmaceutical Co. |
Yoo J.,Korea University |
Jung J.,Korea University
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012
Gamma-ray treatment of phenol was studied in terms of both chemical degradation and toxicological change. About 90 % of phenol (5.0 × 10 -4 M) in ultra-pure water (UW) was eliminated by gamma-irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy, but acute toxicity was dramatically increased, particularly for dose of 1 kGy, due to the formation of more toxic by-products such as hydroquinone, benzoquinone, resorcinol and catechol. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles had little effect on the removal of phenol in UW, but substantially enhanced the mineralization of phenol compared with gamma-irradiation alone. Additionally, degradation of phenol by gamma-irradiation was inhibited in a wastewater effluent (WE) matrix, likely due to the presence of dissolved organic carbon (22.06 mg L-1). Furthermore, lower concentrations of toxic by-products were generated both in WE and in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in reduction of toxicity increase by gamma-irradiation. Meanwhile, the toxicity of gamma-ray treated phenol in WE was well estimated with simple summation of individual toxicity of phenol and by-products (R2 = 0.9678). © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source
Poravuth Y.,National Malaria Center |
Socheat D.,National Malaria Center |
Rueangweerayut R.,Mae Sot General Hospital |
Uthaisin C.,Mae Ramat Hospital |
And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Background: New antimalarials are needed for P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. This study compared the efficacy and safety of pyronaridine-artesunate with that of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria. Methods and Findings: This phase III randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority trial included five centers across Cambodia, Thailand, India, and Indonesia. In a double-dummy design, patients (aged >3-≤60 years) with microscopically confirmed P. vivax mono-infection were randomized (1:1) to receive pyronaridine-artesunate (target dose 7.2:2.4 mg/kg to 13.8:4.6 mg/ kg) or chloroquine (standard dose) once daily for three days. Each treatment group included 228 randomized patients. Outcomes for the primary endpoint, Day-14 cure rate in the per-protocol population, were 99.5%, (217/218; 95%CI 97.5, 100) with pyronaridine-artesunate and 100% (209/209; 95%CI 98.3, 100) with chloroquine. Pyronaridine was non-inferior to chloroquine: treatment difference 20.5% (95%CI 22.6, 1.4), i.e., the lower limit of the 2-sided 95%CI for the treatment difference was greater than 210%. Pyronaridine-artesunate cure rates were non-inferior to chloroquine for Days 21, 28, 35 and 42. Parasite clearance time was shorter with pyronaridine-artesunate (median 23.0 h) versus chloroquine (32.0 h; p<0.0001), as was fever clearance time (median 15.9 h and 23.8 h, respectively; p = 0.0017). Kaplan-Meier estimates of postbaseline P. falciparum infection incidence until Day 42 were 2.5% with pyronaridine-artesunate, 6.1% with chloroquine (p = 0.048, log-rank test). Post-baseline P. vivax or P. falciparum infection incidence until Day 42 was 6.8% and 12.4%, respectively (p = 0.022, log rank test). There were no deaths. Adverse events occurred in 92/228 (40.4%) patients with pyronaridine-artesunate and 72/228 (31.6%) with chloroquine. Mild and transient increases in hepatic enzymes were observed for pyronaridine-artesunate. Conclusion: Pyronaridine-artesunate efficacy in acute uncomplicated P. vivax malaria was at least that of chloroquine. As pyronaridine-artesunate is also efficacious against P. falciparum malaria, this combination has potential utility as a global antimalarial drug. © 2011 Poravuth et al. Source
Morris C.A.,University of Iowa |
Lopez-Lazaro L.,Covance |
Jung D.,ReSearch Pharmaceutical Services |
Methaneethorn J.,University of Iowa |
And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012
A multiple dose, parallel group study was conducted to assess for a drug-drug interaction between the pyronaridine/artesunate (PA) combination antimalarial and ritonavir. Thirty-four healthy adults were randomized (1:1) to receive PA for 3 days or PA with ritonavir (100 mg twice daily for 17 days, PA administered on Days 8-10). Pharmacokinetic parameters for pyronaridine, artesunate, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were obtained after the last PA dose and for ritonavir on Days 1 and 10. Ritonavir coadministration did not markedly change pyronaridine pharmacokinetics but resulted in a 27% increase in artesunate area under the curve (AUC) and a 38% decrease in DHA AUC. Ritonavir exposure was increased 3.2-fold in the presence of PA. The only relevant safety observations were increases in liver enzymes, only reaching a clinically significant grade in the PA + ritonavir arm. It was concluded that coadministered ritonavir and PA interact to alter exposure to artesunate, DHA, and ritonavir itself. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source
Shin Poong Pharmaceutical Co. | Date: 2012-12-11
The present invention relates to a novel quinazoline-2,4-dione derivative of formula (I), a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I) as an active ingredient for preventing or treating neurological brain disease.
Shin Poong Pharmaceutical Co. | Date: 2011-02-08
anti-malaria pharmaceutical preparations, agents for infectious diseases, namely, malaria, and pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of infectious diseases, anti-infective combination pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of malaria, pharmaceutical preparations, namely, anti-dermoinfectives for the treatment of malaria, Antiparasitic pharmaceutical preparations, Antipyretic preparations, Diaphoretics, Antibiotic preparations, Mixed antibiotic preparations.