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Doi K.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Noiri E.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Maeda-Mamiya R.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Ishii T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | And 7 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: This study is aimed to examine whether urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein can detect the severity of sepsis with animal sepsis models and septic shock patients complicated with established acute kidney injury. Design: Experimental animal models and a clinical, prospective observational study. Setting: University laboratory and tertiary hospital. Subjects and Patients: One hundred fourteen human L-type fatty acid-binding protein transgenic mice and 145 septic shock patients with established acute kidney injury. Interventions: Animals were challenged by abdominal (cecal ligation and puncture) and pulmonary (intratracheal lipopolysaccharide injection) sepsis models with different severities that were confirmed by survival analysis (n = 24) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis (n = 38). Measurements and main results: In animal experiments, significant increases of urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein levels were induced by sepsis (severe cecal ligation and puncture 399.0 ± 226.8 μg/g creatinine [n = 12], less-severe cecal ligation and puncture 89.1 ± 25.3 [n = 11], sham 13.4 ± 3.4 [n = 10] at 6 hrs, p <.05 vs. sham; 200 μg of lipopolysaccharide 190.6 ± 77.4 μg/g creatinine [n = 6], 50 μg of lipopolysaccharide 145.4 ± 32.6 [n = 8], and saline 29.9 ± 14.9 [n = 5] at 6 hrs, p <.05 vs. saline). Urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein predicted severity more accurately than blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and urinary N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase levels. In clinical evaluation, urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein measured at admission was significantly higher in the nonsurvivors of septic shock with established acute kidney injury than in the survivors (4366 ± 192 μg/g creatinine [n = 68] vs. 483 ± 71 [n = 77], p <.05). Urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein showed the higher value of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for mortality compared with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (L-type fatty acid-binding protein 0.994 [0.956-0.999], APACHE II 0.927 [0.873-0.959], and SOFA 0.813 [0.733-0.873], p <.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein can be a useful biomarker for sepsis complicated with acute kidney injury for detecting its severity. © 2010 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Toyoda H.,Ogaki Municipal Hospital | Kumada T.,Ogaki Municipal Hospital | Takaguchi K.,Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital | Shimada N.,Shinmatsudo Central General Hospital | Tanaka J.,Hiroshima University
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

Genotypes are associated with the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and response to antiviral therapy for HCV. HCV genotype 1b has been the dominant genotype in Japan, where the prevention of HCV transmission through blood transfusion or nosocomial infection has been established since 1990. The distribution of HCV genotype was investigated based on patient's birth year in 5515 HCV-infected Japanese individuals at three institutions from different areas of Japan. At all three institutions, the proportion of HCV genotype 1b decreased and was <50% in individuals born after 1970. By contrast, the percentage of HCV genotype 2b increased in subsequent birth cohorts after 1920-1929. Significant changes in HCV genotype distribution were observed across Japan regardless of area. Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press. Source

Nakamura T.,Shinmatsudo Central General Hospital | Sato E.,Shinmatsudo Central General Hospital | Fujiwara N.,Shinmatsudo Central General Hospital | Kawagoe Y.,Shinmatsudo Central General Hospital | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of the Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

BACKGROUNDS: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) progresses more quickly to end-stage renal disease in patients with hypertension than in their normotensive counterparts. The authors investigated the effect of telmisartan versus enalapril on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), urinary albumin excretion (UAE), serum high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), serum interleukin (IL)-6 and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in patients with hypertensive ADPKD. METHODS: Twenty patients with hypertensive ADPKD with good renal function were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: telmisartan 80 mg once daily (n = 10) or enalapril 10 mg once daily (n = 10). Treatment lasted 12 months. SBP, DBP, serum creatinine, UAE, HMGB1, IL-6 and urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured before and 6 and 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: Both SBP and DBP were significantly reduced after treatment (P < 0.001) in both groups. Serum creatinine changed little during the experimental period in either group. UAE, serum HMGB1, serum IL-6 and urinary 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased after treatment (UAE, HMGB1 and IL-6, P < 0.001; and 8-OHdG, P < 0.01 versus baseline levels) in both groups. However, the decreases in UAE, serum HMGB1 and serum IL-6 were significantly greater in the telmisartan group than in the enalapril group at 6 months (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively) and 12 months (all, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Telmisartan seems to be equivalent to enalapril in lowering BP, but telmisartan has more potent renoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects than enalapril in patients with hypertensive ADPKD. © Copyright 2012 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Source

Yoshizawa K.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Abe H.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Aida Y.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Ishiguro H.,Jikei University School of Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2013

Host lipoprotein metabolism is associated closely with the life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and serum lipid profiles have been linked to the response to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Polymorphisms in the human IL28B gene and amino acid substitutions in the core and interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) in NS5A of HCV genotype 1b (G1b) were also shown to strongly affect the outcome of Peg-IFN plus RBV therapy. In this study, an observational cohort study was performed in 247 HCV G1b-infected patients to investigate whether the response to Peg-IFN and RBV combination therapy in these patients is independently associated with the level of lipid factors, especially apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), an obligatory structural component of very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. The multivariate logistic analysis subsequently identified apoB-100 (odds ratio (OR), 1.602; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.046-2.456), alpha-fetoprotein (OR, 0.764; 95% CI, 0.610-0.958), non-wild-type ISDR (OR, 5.617; 95% CI, 1.274-24.754), and the rs8099917 major genotype (OR, 34.188; 95% CI, 10.225-114.308) as independent factors affecting rapid initial virological response (decline in HCV RNA levels by ≥3-log10 at week 4). While lipid factors were not independent predictors of complete early or sustained virological response, the serum apoB-100 level was an independent factor for sustained virological response in patients carrying the rs8099917 hetero/minor genotype. Together, we conclude that serum apoB-100 concentrations could predict virological response to Peg-IFN plus RBV combination therapy in patients infected with HCV G1b, especially in those with the rs8099917 hetero/minor genotype. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Nakamura T.,Shinmatsudo Central General Hospital | Yamagishi S.-I.,Kurume University
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2010

Septic shock is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Endotoxin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Lack of clinical success with anti-endotoxin or anti-cytokine therapies has shifted interest to extracorporeal therapies to reduce circulating levels of various mediators for septic shock patients. Polymyxin B -immobilized polystyrene fiber (PMX-F) is a medical device that aims to remove circulating endotoxin by adsorption. Since 1994, PMX-F column has been available in Japan, and many investigators have reported that PMX-F treatment is safe and effective in patients with septic shock. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors. PEDF induces macrophages apoptosis and necrosis through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by which PEDF could modulate inflammatory reactions in septic shock. Further, given the fact that PEDF possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in vivo, serum PEDF level may be a biomarker of septic shock. However, little is known about the relationship between serum level of PEDF and inflammatory biomarkers such as endotoxin and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in septic shock and the effects of PMX-F treatment on these markers. This review aims to provide current knowledge about the pathogenesis of septic shock and the clinical utility of PMX-F treatment. We also discuss here the pathophysiological role of PEDF in this devastating disorder. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

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