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Yamauchi T.,Toyama institute of health | Doi H.,Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum | Wada M.,JF Iorigawa | Nagasawa K.,Hiroshima University
Nature and Human Activities | Year: 2010

Limnotrachelobdella okae was collected from Kadogawa Cove (the western North Pacific), Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu (single specimen), and from the Sea of Japan of Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Honshu, Japan (two specimens). These collections represent the westernmost record of L. o£ae from the Sea of Japan and the southernmost record of its total geographical distribution, respectively. In Kadogawa Cove, the leech was found attached to the skin of a Japanese seaperch Lateolabrax japonicus. A leech from off Shimonoseki was attempted to infect marine fishes kept in an aquarium tank, but it did not parasitize them and died 15 days after collection.


Uehara M.,Tottori University | Hosaka Y.Z.,Tottori University | Doi H.,Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum | Sakai H.,National Fisheries University
Journal of Morphology | Year: 2015

In teleosts, the spinal cord generally extends along the entire vertebral canal. The Tetraodontiformes, in which the spinal cord is greatly reduced in length with a distinct long filum terminale and cauda equina, have been regarded as an aberration. The aims of this study are: 1) to elucidate whether the spinal cord in all tetraodontiform fishes shorten with the filum terminale, and 2) to describe the gross anatomical and histological differences in the spinal cord among all families of the Tetraodontiformes. Representative species from all families of the Tetraodontiformes, and for comparison the carp as a common teleost, were investigated. In the Triacanthodidae, Triacanthidae, and Triodontidae, which are the more ancestral taxa of the Tetraodontiformes, the spinal cord extends through the entire vertebral canal. In the Triacanthidae and Triodontidae, the caudal half or more spinal segments of the spinal cord, however, lack gray matter and consist largely of nerve fibers. In the other tetraodontiform families, the spinal cord is shortened forming a filum terminale with the cauda equina, which is prolonged as far as the last vertebra. The shortened spinal cord is divided into three groups. In the Ostraciidae and Molidae, the spinal cord tapers abruptly at the cranium or first vertebra forming a cord-like filum terminale. In the Monacanthidae, Tetraodontidae, and Diodontidae, it abruptly flattens at the rostral vertebrae forming a flat filum terminale. The spinal cord is relatively longer in the Monacanthidae than that in the other two families. It is suggested by histological features of the flat filum terminale that shortening of the spinal cord in this group progresses in order of the Monacanthidae, Tetraodontidae, and Diodontidae. In the Balistidae and Aracanidae, the cord is relatively long and then gradually decreased in dorso-ventral thickness. J. Morphol. 276:290-300, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum, Kobe City Suma Aqualife Park, Kagoshima City Aquarium, Miyajima Public Aquarium and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents or between one of the former opponents and bystanders might have the function of conflict management, which reduces the costs associated with aggressions. One of the suggested functions of post-conflict affiliation is decreased renewed aggressions directed from aggressors to victims. However, the effect of post-conflict affiliation on renewed aggressions by victims has not been investigated. We examined whether post-conflict affiliations decreased the number of renewed aggressions initiated by winners or losers in captive bottlenose dolphins. Both winners and losers initiated renewed aggressions. However, these aggressions decreased after post-conflict affiliation between former opponents, initiated by bystanders to winners, initiated by losers to bystanders, and initiated by bystanders to losers. Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents is suggested to function as reconciliation. Post-conflict affiliation initiated by losers to bystanders is suggested to function as the protection of losers. Post-conflict affiliations initiated by bystanders to one of former opponents are suggested to function as both appeasement and protection of the opponent who affiliates with bystanders.


Yamamoto C.,Nagasaki University | Ishibashi T.,Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum | Yoshida A.,Kagoshima City Aquarium | Amano M.,Nagasaki University
Journal of Ethology | Year: 2016

Reconciliation, post-conflict affiliation between former opponents, was suggested to repair the relationship between former opponents. The number of times that each former opponent initiates reconciliation may be affected by the dominance style. Despotic dominance style was suggested to restrain the initiation of reconciliation by recipients of aggression, unlike relaxed dominance style. Although reconciliation was suggested to restore relationships, reconciliation sometimes did not occur. The valuable relationship hypothesis predicts that reconciliation is more likely to occur when former opponents share a valuable relationship. However, few studies have tested this hypothesis in non-primate species. This study investigated, in captive bottlenose dolphins, which are suggested as having a relaxed dominance style, whether aggressors or recipients of aggression initiate reconciliation, and whether relationships between former opponents affect the occurrence of reconciliation. The number of times that aggressors or recipients of aggression initiate reconciliation did not differ. Recipients of aggression initiated reconciliation sooner than aggressors. These results support the prospect that recipients of aggression are not impeded in initiating reconciliation in relaxed species. Former opponents who share a more affiliative relationship were reconciled more frequently. Bottlenose dolphins were suggested to receive the benefits from individuals who shared more affiliative relationships. The valuable relationship hypothesis may be supported in bottlenose dolphins. © 2016 Japan Ethological Society and Springer Japan


Munakata K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Ookata K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Doi H.,Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum | Baba O.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

Luminal surface of the swimbladder is covered by gas gland epithelial cells and is responsible for inflating the swimbladder by generating O 2 from Root-effect hemoglobin that releases O 2 under acidic conditions. Acidification of blood is achieved by lactic acid secreted from gas gland cells, which are poor in mitochondria but rich in the glycolytic activity. The acidic conditions are locally maintained by a countercurrent capillary system called rete mirabile. To understand the regulation of anaerobic metabolism of glucose in the gas gland cells, we analyzed the glucose transporter expressed there and the fate of ATP generated by glycolysis. The latter is important because the ATP should be immediately consumed otherwise it strongly inhibits the glycolysis rendering the cells unable to produce lactic acid anymore. Expression analyses of glucose transporter (glut) genes in the swimbladder of fugu (Takifugu rubripes) by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization demonstrated that glut1a and glut6 are expressed in gas gland cells. Immunohistochemical analyses of metabolic enzymes demonstrated that a gluconeogenesis enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fbp1) and a glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh) are highly expressed in gas gland cells. The simultaneous catalyses of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis reactions suggest the presence of a futile cycle in gas gland cells to maintain the levels of ATP low and to generate heat that helps reduce the solubility of O 2. © 2011 Elsevier Inc..


Tanaka K.,Tokai University | Shiina T.,Tokai University | Tomita T.,Hokkaido University | Suzuki S.,Tokai University | And 9 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Hexanchiformes is regarded as a monophyletic taxon, but the morphological and genetic relationships between the five extant species within the order are still uncertain. In this study, we determined the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of seven sharks including representatives of the five Hexanchiformes, one squaliform, and one carcharhiniform and inferred the phylogenetic relationships among those species and 12 other Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) species for which the complete mitogenome is available. The monophyly of Hexanchiformes and its close relation with all other Squaliformes sharks were strongly supported by likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 13,749 aligned nucleotides of 13 protein coding genes and two rRNA genes that were derived from the whole mDNA sequences of the 19 species. The phylogeny suggested that Hexanchiformes is in the superorder Squalomorphi, Chlamydoselachus anguineus (frilled shark) is the sister species to all other Hexanchiformes, and the relations within Hexanchiformes are well resolved as Chlamydoselachus, (Notorynchus, (Heptranchias, (Hexanchus griseus, H. nakamurai))). Based on our phylogeny, we discussed evolutionary scenarios of the jaw suspension mechanism and gill slit numbers that are significant features in the sharks. © 2013 Keiko Tanaka et al.


Islam Z.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Hayashi N.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Inoue H.,University of Tokyo | Umezawa T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2014

The kidney of marine teleosts isthe major site of Mg2 excretion and produces urine with a highMg2+ concentration. However, the transporters involved in Mg2+ excretion are poorly understood. The cyclin M (Cnnm; also known as ancient conserved domain protein) family comprises membrane pro-teins homologous to the bacterial Mg2+ and Co2+ efflux protein, CorC. To understand the molecular mechanism of Mg2+ homeostasis in marine teleosts, we analyzed the expression of the Cnnm family genes in the seawater (SW) pufferfish, torafugu (Takifugu rubripes), and the closely related euryhaline species, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus). Database mining and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Takifugu genome contains six members of the Cnnm family: two orthologs of Cnnm1, one of Cnnm2, one of Cnnm3, and two of Cnnm4. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Cnnm2, Cnnm3, and Cnnm4a are expressed in the kidney, whereas other members are mainly expressed in the brain. Renal expression of Cnnm3 was upregulated in SW mefugu, whereas renal expression of Cnnm2 was upregulated in freshwater (FW) mefugu. No significant difference was observed in renal expression of Cnnm4a between SW and FW mefugu. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses of the SW mefugu kidney revealed that Cnnm3 is expressed in the proximal tubule, and its product localizes to the lateral membrane. When Cnnm3 wasexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, whole cellular Mg2+ contentand free intracellular Mg2+ activity significantly decreased. Theseresults suggest that Cnnm3 is involved in body fluid Mg2+ homeostasis in marine teleosts. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


Nakaya K.,Hokkaido University | Nakaya K.,Okinawa Churashima Research Center | Tomita T.,Okinawa Churashima Research Center | Tomita T.,Hokkaido University | And 7 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2016

Five striking and prey capture events of two goblin sharks were videotaped at sea for the first time, showing their extraordinary biting process. The goblin sharks swung their lower jaw downward and backward to attain a huge gape and then rapidly protruded the jaws forward a considerable distance. The jaws were projected at a maximum velocity of 3.1 m/s to 8.6-9.4% of the total length of the shark, which is by far the fastest and greatest jaw protrusion among sharks. While the jaws were being retracted, the mouth opened and closed again, which was considered a novel feeding event for sharks. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that their feeding behavior has evolved as an adaptation to food-poor deep-sea environments, possibly as a trade-off for the loss of strong swimming ability.


PubMed | Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester College, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum and Tokyo Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology | Year: 2014

The kidney of marine teleosts is the major site of Mg(2+) excretion and produces urine with a high Mg(2+) concentration. However, the transporters involved in Mg(2+) excretion are poorly understood. The cyclin M (Cnnm; also known as ancient conserved domain protein) family comprises membrane proteins homologous to the bacterial Mg(2+) and Co(2+) efflux protein, CorC. To understand the molecular mechanism of Mg(2+) homeostasis in marine teleosts, we analyzed the expression of the Cnnm family genes in the seawater (SW) pufferfish, torafugu (Takifugu rubripes), and the closely related euryhaline species, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus). Database mining and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Takifugu genome contains six members of the Cnnm family: two orthologs of Cnnm1, one of Cnnm2, one of Cnnm3, and two of Cnnm4. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Cnnm2, Cnnm3, and Cnnm4a are expressed in the kidney, whereas other members are mainly expressed in the brain. Renal expression of Cnnm3 was upregulated in SW mefugu, whereas renal expression of Cnnm2 was upregulated in freshwater (FW) mefugu. No significant difference was observed in renal expression of Cnnm4a between SW and FW mefugu. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses of the SW mefugu kidney revealed that Cnnm3 is expressed in the proximal tubule, and its product localizes to the lateral membrane. When Cnnm3 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, whole cellular Mg(2+) content and free intracellular Mg(2+) activity significantly decreased. These results suggest that Cnnm3 is involved in body fluid Mg(2+) homeostasis in marine teleosts.


PubMed | Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum, 2 Place de la republique, Hokkaido University, Okabe Co. and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Five striking and prey capture events of two goblin sharks were videotaped at sea for the first time, showing their extraordinary biting process. The goblin sharks swung their lower jaw downward and backward to attain a huge gape and then rapidly protruded the jaws forward a considerable distance. The jaws were projected at a maximum velocity of 3.1m/s to 8.6-9.4% of the total length of the shark, which is by far the fastest and greatest jaw protrusion among sharks. While the jaws were being retracted, the mouth opened and closed again, which was considered a novel feeding event for sharks. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that their feeding behavior has evolved as an adaptation to food-poor deep-sea environments, possibly as a trade-off for the loss of strong swimming ability.

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