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Kumar D.B.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science | Raghupathi A.R.,Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute
Basic and Applied Pathology | Year: 2012

Background and aim: A study was carried out to analyze the presentation, to identify the causes and to find out the bone marrow morphology in cases of pancytopenia. Pancytopenia was an indication for bone marrow examination in 48 out of a total of 100 cases (48%) for which a bone marrow examination was requested. Methods: The data regarding the various signs and symptoms, the causes and the bone marrow findings were obtained and analyzed using simple statistical methods. All age groups were included for the study. Results: Generalized weakness (70.83%) was the commonest symptom and pallor (45.83%) was the predominant sign. Anisocytosis (79.1%) was the most important peripheral blood finding in pancytopenic patients followed by microcytosis (52.08%). The commonest cause of pancytopenia in the present study was hypoplastic marrow (33.33%), followed by normoblastic erythroid hyperplasia (27.08%), megaloblastic marrow (18.75%), and myelodysplastic syndrome (8.33%). Normal bone marrow and dry tap accounted for three cases each (6.25%). Of the various cases of myelodysplastic syndrome, one was refractory anemia; two were refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and one myelodysplastic syndrome unclassified. Dry tap was seen in three cases of pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy was done in one, which showed features of myelofibrosis. Conclusions: A thorough evaluation of the pancytopenic patients is necessary as it has varied causes. © 2012 The Korean Society for Cytopathology, The Korean Society for Legal Medicine, The Korean Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, The Korean Society of Pathologists, The Korean Society of Toxicological Pathology, The Korean Society of Veterinary Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Kavitha Kamath B.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015

A rare variation was seen in the arterial supply of liver and gall bladder during dissection of an adult female cadaver. The right hepatic artery was having a tortuous course with double loops and cystic artery was arising from the distal loop within the hepatobiliary triangle. There was an accessory cystic artery arising from the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery outside the hepatobiliary triangle which ascended anterior to the common bile duct and cystic duct towards the gall bladder. The knowledge of these vascular variations is very much essential owing to increase in surgical interventions involving the biliary tract. Recognition of such vascular variations is essential for laparoscopic surgeons to reduce complications like uncontrolled intraoperative bleeding, iatrogenic extrahepatic biliary injuries and conversion to open cholecystectomy. This report emphasizes the necessity of all surgeons being well aware of vascular variations and anomalies to be able to accomplish safe and uneventful hepatobiliary surgeries. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

Kumar N.P.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science | Shankaregowda H.S.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science | Revathy R.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science
Asian Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

To assess the prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease and the association of these risk factors with sociodemographic variables, a cross sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of adults aged 40 years or more in the district of Shimoga. A sample of 992 subjects was selected from all the blocks of the district using the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. The study participants' blood pressure was measured; their body mass index calculated and collected information on self-reported smoking status. The extent to which, being overweight, hypertension, smoking and various combinations of these risk factors were associated with the study participants' education level, occupational category and economic status was measured. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 14 and multivariate logistic regression model to note the associations between the outcome variables and select demographic variables. Mean blood pressure levels were higher among men than among women and increased progressively with age. Sixty three percent of men were current smokers and 58% were current daily smokers; less than 1% of women smoked. Mean body mass index was 19.6 among men and 19.9 among women and only 3.5% of the population was overweight. Education level was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertension among both men and women and with the prevalence of smoking among men. Hypertension was directly associated with socioeconomic status among men but inversely associated with socioeconomic status among women. India is experiencing an increase in the prevalence of many risk factors for chronic diseases and is in urgent need of interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors and to deal with the chronic diseases to which they contribute. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Koppad R.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science | Girish H.O.,Subbaiah Institute of Medical science & Research Center
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2015

Background: As we slowly advance into the 21st Century, we find that the challenges posed by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) present an imminent threat to people worldwide. The rapidly growing epidemic of non-communicable diseases is clearly related to changes in life styles. Objectives: 1) To study the socio-demographic factors of the region. 2) To assess the prevalence of behavioral risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Methods: Study Design: A Community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Study participants: 2000 urban people of Davangere city, belonging to the age group 15-64 years. Study Period: 1st December 2008 and 30th November 2009 (1 year). Methodology: A multi-stage sampling method with households as sampling unit. Information on behavioral risk factors was obtained through standardized methods as recommended by the STEPS 1 survey guideline of the World Health Organization after modifying to suit the local requirement. Statistical analysis: Proportion and Chi-square test. Results: Total participants in the study were 2000, comprised of 1000 males’ and1000 females. High burden of NCD risk factors was observed among urban population: current smoking- 15.2% (Male-30.1%, Female-0.2%); current smokeless tobacco use -17.8% (Male- 28.8%, Female-6.8%); current alcohol use -17.5% (Male- 32.8%, Female-1.3%); physical inactivity -30.4% (Male- 17.6%, Female-43.3) Interpretation and Conclusions: Substantially high levels of the various behavioral risk factors in this urban population suggest an urgent need for adopting healthy life style modifications among the population in general. The increased risk observed among the younger generation for risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption calls for urgent corrective steps and measures for long-term monitoring of all major risk factors as well as the major chronic disease conditions. © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.

Hoskeri H.J.,Kuvempu University | Krishna V.,Kuvempu University | Kumar B.V.,Kuvempu University | Shridar A.H.,Kuvempu University | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Pharmacal Research | Year: 2012

The prophylactic effects of oleanolic acid (OA) isolated from chloroform extract (CE) of Flaveria trinervia against ethanol induced liver toxicity was investigated using rats. CE and OA at three different doses were tested by administering orally to the ethanol treated animals during the last week of the 7 weeks study. Silymarin was used as the standard reference. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in ethanol treated animals were restored towards normalcy by treatment of CE and OA. In vivo antioxidant and in vitro free radical scavenging activities were also positive for all the three concentrations of CE and OA. However, OA at 150 mg/kg showed significant activity when compared to the other two doses. Biochemical observations in support with histopathological examinations revealed that CE and OA possess hepatoprotective action against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Veeresh M.R.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science
Journal of South India Medicolegal Association | Year: 2012

Many women in developing countries are subjected to various forms of pain and suffering, more during the age in which they are more fertile and thrust with newer responsibilities at home. They are battered, bruised, mutilated and killed. Others are driven to commit suicide because of intolerable suffering. In the present study, 438 such cases of harassment to women of reproductive age (13-45 years) who visited the District Hospital, Belgaum, South India and KLE Society's Hospital, Belgaum, and medicolegal cases autopsied at the District Hospital, Belgaum from January to December, 2001 were studied. Among them, 36% were physically assaulted, 32.4% consumed poisons, 22.6% sustained burns, 4.1% met with accidents, 1.4% were sexually assaulted and 0.5% underwent criminal abortion. The victims mainly consisted of married women, those in the age group of 13-34 years, school-educated women and those belonging to class II socioeconomic status. Alcohol was the precipitating factor in 31% of cases. © 2012 South India Medico-Legal Association. All rights reserved.

Revankar S.P.,Shimoga Institute Of Medical science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Objective: The present study was planned to explore and compare the Genotoxic potential of metronidazole and tinidazole in Swiss albino mice. Methodology: Genotoxicity testing was carried out using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and micronuclei assay. In acute study only single dose was given and in sub acute study, doses were repeated for 7 days. Blood sample was collected by retro orbital puncture and bone marrow was collected from femur after sacrificing the animal. Blood sample was used for comet assay and bone marrow sample for micronuclei assay. Results: Increase in comet tail length and percentage of micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (% MnPCE) was observed in groups treated with single and multiple doses of Cyclophosphamide. The same effect was seen to some extent metronidazole whereas tinidazole did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: The results indicate that metronidazole showed mild Genotoxic effect while tinidazole was devoid of genotoxicity.

Biradar S.B.,S Nijalingappa Medical College | Kallaganad G.S.,S Nijalingappa Medical College | Rangappa M.,S Nijalingappa Medical College | Kashinakunti S.V.,S Nijalingappa Medical College | Retnakaran R.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is the major cause for chronic renal failure (CRF) and proteinuria is an independent risk factor for end stage renal disease. Hence, early identification and quantification of proteinuria is of prime importance in the diagnosis and management. METHODS: This study was conducted amongst 42 diabetic subjects from HSK hospital, Bagalkot. Twenty four-hour urine protein and random urine protein to creatinine ratio (P:C) was determined. Pearson's correlation, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined using 24-hour urinary protein as a gold standard for spot urine P:C ratio. ROC curve and area under curve was also determined using SPSS (11.5) software. All the results were expressed in mean ± SD. RESULTS: Forty two diabetes mellitus patients participated in this study. The average of 24 hour urinary protein was 1.6 ± 1.7 gm/day. The spot urine P:C ratio was 1.27 ± 1.55. There was a positive correlation between 24 hours urinary protein and spot urine P:C ratio (r = 0.925, p < 0.0001). The area under the ROC curve for urine P:C ratio at various cutoff was 0.947 (95% confidence interval: 0.831-0.992, p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity was 80.65% and 100% respectively at P:C ratio cutoff of 0.3. CONCLUSIONS: The random urine P:C ratio predicts the amount of 24-hour urinary protein excretion with high accuracy. Hence it can be used as a faster diagnostic substitute for 24-hour urinary protein estimation.

Rao C.P.S.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science | Shivappa P.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science | Mothi V.R.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2013

Background: India is a thickly populated country; apart from having biodiversity among people, climate does change from place to place. Western Ghats of South India harbors variety of plantations and diverse creatures. Agriculture is the primary occupation of the people and some tribes living in these regions. Here majority are callous/ ignorant in employing neither advanced farming techniques nor safety precautions, hence are exposed to bites and stings by animals. Of these, snake bites cause significant mortality and morbidity. Proper care for some of these individuals is out of reach. Identification of offending snake, snake bite injury or findings of envenomation is a key not only for the administration of antisnake venom but also for the victim to realize that he needs an expert care. Unless he believes it to be a critical snake bite and not a thorn prick, scorpion sting or a spider bite he will not approach a health care provider. To know about these dangerous signs that may help the victim to realize it as a case of snake bite, current study is employed on fatal cases in this region. Methods. 60 fatal snakebite cases were studied retrospectively for 5 years with an objective to know the socio-demography, latency and pattern of injuries in rural Southern India. Results: Most of the victims were males, in the age group of 31-50 years and were at risk of snake bites while farming. Large sample of subjects approached traditional therapists and were deprived of essential care in the critical first few hours after snake bite. Fang marks (90%), local ecchymoses (50%) and internal hemorrhage (28.3%), were the frequent demonstrable signs appreciated at autopsy. Conclusion: Snakebite is a neglected, endemic, occupational (farming) disease of the poor and there is need for National Snakebite Prevention Programme for curtailing this menace. © 2013 Rao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kumar Praveen N.,Shimoga Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2013

A descriptive retrospective cross -sectional study using existing data from a one-year birth registers of 6928 postnatal women was done at District McGann hospital, Shimoga, India. The objective was to study the risk profile of the mothers who delivered low birth weight (LBW) babies and their contribution to the problem. Mothers without formal education were 4 times more likely to give birth to LBW neonates than those who had attained higher education. There was a linear decrease in low birth weights of newborns as fraternal educational level increased. There was no statistically significant difference among parents' occupations regarding LBW of their newborns. Unmarried mothers were more likely to give birth to LBW babies as compared to their married counterparts and the difference was statistically significant. Hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia disease complex had the highest prevalence and population attributable risk of low birth weight. Other complications and diseases which contributed to high prevalence of LBW included anaemia, thromboembolic diseases, tuberculosis, malaria and other infections. Prevalence of LBW was high in women with premature rupture of membrane, placenta praevia and abruption of placenta. LBW was strongly associated with gestational age below 37 weeks and also with malnutrition. There was a statistical significant difference between the proportions of LBW infants from mothers who did not receive antenatal care and those who attended for the services. There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk factors of LBW.

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