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Oda A.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Narumi T.,Kagawa University | Narumi T.,Liaoning University | Li T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Chrysanthemum is a typical short-day (SD) plant that responds to shortening daylength during the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)/Heading date 3a (Hd3a) plays a pivotal role in the induction of phase transition and is proposed to encode a florigen. Three FT-like genes were isolated from Chrysanthemum seticuspe (Maxim.) Hand.-Mazz. f. boreale (Makino) H. Ohashi & Yonek, a wild diploid chrysanthemum: CsFTL1, CsFTL2, and CsFTL3. The organ-specific expression patterns of the three genes were similar: they were all expressed mainly in the leaves. However, their response to daylength differed in that under SD (floral-inductive) conditions, the expression of CsFTL1 and CsFTL2 was down-regulated, whereas that of CsFTL3 was up-regulated. CsFTL3 had the potential to induce early flowering since its overexpression in chrysanthemum could induce flowering under non-inductive conditions. CsFTL3-dependent graft-transmissible signals partially substituted for SD stimuli in chrysanthemum. The CsFTL3 expression levels in the two C. seticuspe accessions that differed in their critical daylengths for flowering closely coincided with the flowering response. The CsFTL3 expression levels in the leaves were higher under floral-inductive photoperiods than under non-inductive conditions in both the accessions, with the induction of floral integrator and/or floral meristem identity genes occurring in the shoot apexes. Taken together, these results indicate that the gene product of CsFTL3 is a key regulator of photoperiodic flowering in chrysanthemums. © 2012 The Author. Source

Sugiyama M.,Shimane Agricultural Technology Center | Katsube T.,Shimane Institute for Industrial Technology | Koyama A.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Koyama A.,Urasoe Silver Human Resources Center | Itamura H.,The University of Shimane
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: The functional components of mulberry leaves have attracted the attention of the health food industry, and increasing their concentrations is an industry goal. This study investigated the effects of solar radiation, which may influence the production of flavonol and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) functional components in mulberry leaves, by comparing a greenhouse (poor solar radiation) and outdoor (rich solar radiation) setting. RESULTS: The level of flavonol in leaves cultivated in the greenhouse was markedly decreased when compared with those cultivated outdoors. In contrast, the DNJ content in greenhouse-cultivated plants was increased only slightly when compared with those cultivated outdoors. Interestingly, the flavonol content was markedly increased in the upper leaves of mulberry trees that were transferred from a greenhouse to the outdoors compared with those cultivated only in the outdoors. CONCLUSION: Solar radiation conditions influence the synthesis of flavonol and DNJ, the functional components of mulberry leaves. Under high solar radiation, the flavonol level becomes very high but the DNJ level becomes slightly lower, suggesting that the impact of solar radiation is great on flavonol but small on DNJ synthesis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry Source

Nakao S.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Chikamori C.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Okajima S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Narai Y.,Shimane Agricultural Technology Center | Murai T.,Utsunomiya University
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2011

The tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, which is known as a vector of TSWV and Pantoea ananatis causing center rot of onion, and a serious pest of tobacco, cotton and groundnuts in North America, is newly recorded from the bulbs of Narcissus pseudonarcissus in Honshu, mainland Japan. Two strains were found in Shimane Prefecture. One strain was collected from a bulb produced in Niigata Prefecture in the winter of 2002, and the other was collected from bulbs produced in Fukushima Prefecture in the autumn of 2002. F. fusca can be easily distinguished from other members of this genus in Japan. © 2010 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. Source

Tanaka D.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Nishiuchi A.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Niino T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Matsumoto T.,Shimane Agricultural Technology Center
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

A droplet vitrification procedure was tested for cryopreservation of shoot tips from in-vitro grown black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) and compared to a standard vitrification procedure. The 30 day cold-hardened shoots were excised and precultured for 1 day at 5°C on a solidified MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose. Then the shoot tips were treated with loading solution (LS) for 30 min at 25°C and dehydrated by exposure to a plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) for 5-65 min at 25°C before immersion into nitrogen slush (-210°C). The survival rates of vitrified shoot tips dehydrated for 15-55 min were 70-80% after 30 days regrowth. This range of dehydration exposure times giving high survival rates was greater for the droplet vitrification protocol than for the standard vitrification protocol (35-55 min). The droplet vitrification protocol appears to be a promising technique for cryopreservation of plant genetic resources. Source

Bao W.X.,Okayama University | Narai Y.,Shimane Agricultural Technology Center | Nakano A.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Kaneda T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | And 2 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2014

To examine the resistance mechanisms of Thrips palmi against spinosad, we cloned partial nucleotide sequences of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit (TPα6) gene from susceptible (OK) and resistant (TS1 and TS5) strains and compared the deduced amino acid sequences among the three strains. The OK, TS1, and TS5 strains respectively showed LC50 values of 3.4mg/L, 2838.5mg/L, and 6655.5mg/L. The deduced amino acid sequence of TPα6 gene showed 96% identity with that of Frankliniella occidentalis. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of TPα6 gene among the three strains showed that the TS1 and TS5 strains had a resistant amino acid, Glu, at amino acid position 275. On the other hand, a susceptible amino acid, Gly, was encoded at the corresponding amino acid position for the OK strain. The synergist, piperonyl butoxide, respectively caused 1.1-fold, 5.8-fold, and 9.0-fold decreases in the resistance ratios of the OK, TS1, and TS5 strains. These results suggest that spinosad resistance of T. palmi is conferred by reduced sensitivity of TPα6 and cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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