Shimadzu Techno Research Inc.

Hadano, Japan

Shimadzu Techno Research Inc.

Hadano, Japan
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Furukawa H.,Shimadzu Corporation | Ichimaru N.,Shimadzu Techno Research Inc | Suzuki K.,Shimadzu Corporation | Nishino M.,Shimadzu Corporation | And 3 more authors.
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2017

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has established general analysis guidelines of X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) methodology in chapter <735>, XRF spectrometry. Meanwhile, the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH Q3D) guideline, presenting a policy for limiting 24 elements such as Cd, Pb, and As in drug products and pharmaceutical ingredients, has now reached Step 5 (Implementation). The limit values of ICH Q3D are strict, for example, near or less than 1 μg/g for Cd and Pb. Moreover, there are other difficulties for accurate analysis, such as different types of matrices and the very small sample volumes in the synthesis research process for new product development in the pharmaceutical industries. Energy dispersive XRF can correct the influence of various matrices and volumes and also has the advantages of nonchemical pretreatment and nondestructive analysis. Advancements in the quantitation by fundamental parameters (FP) method using theoretical calculations, background (BG)-FP method, leads to reduction in the number of standard samples and effectiveness on the practical elemental impurity control in pharmaceutical researches and inspections. In order to show the applicability of using the BG-FP method, in this study, the quantitative values of some hazardous inorganic impurities for Cd, Pb, As, V, Co, and Ni in a cellulose matrix were compared by calibration curve method and BG-FP method through the verification of USP <735>. Both methods can meet the acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision in USP <735>. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Harada K.H.,Kyoto University | Takasuga T.,Shimadzu Techno Research Incorporated | Hitomi T.,Kyoto University | Wang P.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in biota and are under review by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCP levels were measured semiquantitatively in pooled 24 h food composite samples from Chinese (n = 10), Korean (n = 10), and Japanese (n = 40) adults in the 1990s and 2007-2009. In Japan, SCCPs were detected in 14 of 20 pooled samples in the 1990s and 13 of 20 pooled samples in 2009. Between these two time points, the geometric mean (GM) of the dietary intake of total SCCPs per body weight was comparable in Japan (54 ng kg-bw -1 day -1 in the 1990s and 54 ng kg-bw -1 day -1 in the 2000s). In Beijing, SCCP levels were elevated by 2 orders of magnitude from 1993 to 2009 (GM: 620 ng kg-bw -1 day -1 in 2009). The 95th percentile estimate of the dietary intake was 1200 ng kg-bw -1 day -1 (>1% of tolerable daily intake). In Seoul, no samples in 1994 contained detectable SCCP levels and only one sample in 2007 showed trace levels of SCCPs. Preliminary evidence on the significant increase in SCCP exposure in Beijing in 2009 warrants urgent investigations to refine dietary intake estimates by targeting food types and source identification. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Ide Y.,Japan International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics | Ide Y.,Waseda University | Nagao K.,Waseda University | Saito K.,Waseda University | And 6 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2016

The activity of Au nanoparticle-loaded P25 TiO2 (Au/P25) plasmonic photocatalysts, evaluated by the oxidative decomposition of formic acid in water under visible light irradiation, was enhanced up to 3 times by simply mixing Au/P25 with photocatalytically inactive h-BN nanosheets as a result of electron transfer from photoexcited Au/TiO2 to the h-BN nanosheets and retardation of the charge recombination. © the Owner Societies 2016.


Han Z.-J.,Tokyo University of Science | Yamagiwa K.,Tokyo University of Science | Yabuuchi N.,Tokyo University of Science | Son J.-Y.,Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

Poly(acrylic acid) (PAH), which is a water soluble polycarboxylic acid, is neutralized by adding different amounts of LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and ammonia (NH4OH) aqueous solutions to fix neutralization degrees. The differently neutralized polyacid, alkali and ammonium polyacrylates are examined as polymeric binders for the preparation of Si-graphite composite electrodes as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The electrode performance of the Si-graphite composite depends on the alkali chemicals and neutralization degree. It is found that 80% NaOH-neutralized polyacrylate binder (a pH value of the resultant aqueous solution is ca. 6.7) is the most efficient binder to enhance the electrochemical lithiation and de-lithiation performance of the Si-graphite composite electrode compared to that of conventional PVdF and the other binders used in this study. The optimum polyacrylate binder highly improves the dispersion of active material in the composite electrode. The binder also provides the strong adhesion, suitable porosity, and hardness for the composite electrode with 10% (m/m) binder content, resulting in better electrochemical reversibility. From these results, the factors of alkali-neutralized polyacrylate binders affecting the electrode performance of Si-graphite composite electrodes are discussed. © the Owner Societies 2015.


PubMed | Kyoto Bunkyo Junior College, Kyoto Koka Women's University, Kyoto University and Shimadzu Techno Research Incorporated
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults.Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53-3.66 g/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 g/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake.


Takazawa Y.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Takasuga T.,Shimadzu Techno Research Inc. | Doi K.,Chiyoda Corporation | Saito M.,Chiyoda Corporation | Shibata Y.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m-3 (15 ± 7.8 pg m-3) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m-3 (8.8 ± 11 pg m-3) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m-3 (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m-3) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Shimadzu Techno Research Inc., Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies and Chiyoda Corporation
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric meanSD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43pgm(-3) (157.8pgm(-3)) in HCHs (sum of -/-/-/-HCH), 1.5-83pgm(-3) (8.811pgm(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16pgm(-3) (2.52.0pgm(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p-/p,p-DDD, o,p-/p,p-DDE, and o,p-/p,p-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p-DDT+p,p-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention.


PubMed | University Institute of Health Sciences, Central South University, Kyoto University and Shimadzu Techno Research Incorporated
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants. It has been found that dietary intakes of SCCPs in China have recently increased and are now higher than in Japan and Korea. The contribution of cooking oil to dietary exposure to SCCPs in China was evaluated by analyzing SCCPs in cooking oil, raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, and fried confectionery products collected in China in 2010 and 2012. Detectable amounts of SCCP homologs were found in 48 out of the 49 cooking oil samples analyzed, and the SCCP concentrations varied widely, from <9 to 7500 ng g(-1). Estimated dietary intakes of total SCCPs in cooking oil ranged from <0.78 to 38 g d(-1). The estimated dietary intake of SCCPs was relatively high (mean 14.8 g d(-1)) for residents of Beijing. Fried confectionery was found to contain SCCP concentrations of 11-1000 ng g(-1). Cooking oil might therefore be one of the sources of SCCPs to Chinese diets. SCCPs were also detected in raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, but the concentrations varied widely. The SCCP homolog patterns in the raw seed and cooking oil samples were different, implying that the seeds used to produce the oil (and therefore the soil on which the seeds were produced) were unlikely to be the sources of SCCPs in cooking oil. Further investigations are needed to determine the routes through which cooking oil becomes contaminated with SCCPs during the production and processing of the oil.


Yang Y.,Environmental Quality Management | Nakada N.,Environmental Quality Management | Nakajima R.,Shimadzu Techno Research Inc. | Yasojima M.,Shimadzu Techno Research Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

The rapid increase in the production and use of fullerene C60 nanoparticles raise concerns about environmental risks and human health. Wastewater treatment plants are key barriers to their discharge into the environment. The aggregation behavior of aqueous suspensions of C60 nanoparticles (nC60) could affect their transport, bioavailability, and removal during wastewater treatment. We tested the aggregation of nC60 in wastewater at different values of pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The nC60 remained relatively stable in filtered wastewater under environmentally relevant conditions up to 24h. But at pH 3 or at high ionic strength (>100mM NaCl), the aggregate size increased greatly, reaching micrometer scale after only 1h. However, the aggregation behavior varied among wastewater samples even at values of similar zeta potential, compared with that in filtered secondary effluent and aeration tank liquor, that in filtered primary effluent was obviously inhibited. This inhibition could be attributed to the steric stabilization due to the adsorption of DOM on nC60 aggregate in addition to electrostatic stabilization. The aggregation results also suggest that membrane filtration could be improved by adjustments to pH. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Araoka F.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Masuko S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kogure A.,Shimadzu Techno Research Inc. | Miyajima D.,University of Tokyo | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

The self-organization of ferroelectric columnar liquid crystals (FCLCs) is demonstrated. Columnar order is spontaneously formed in thin films made by the wet-process due to its liquid crystallinity. Electric-field application results in high optical quality and uniform spontaneous polarization. Such good processability and controllability of the wet-processed FCLC films provide us with potential organic ferroelectric materials for device applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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