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Ezzet K.A.,Scripps Research Institute | McCauley J.C.,Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2014

Proper femoral and acetabular component position and leg length equality are important intraoperative considerations during total hip arthroplasty. Unfortunately, traditional surgical techniques often lead to suboptimal component position, and such deviations have been associated with increased rates of prosthetic wear, dislocation, component loosening, and patient dissatisfaction. Although surgical navigation has been shown to improve reproducibility of component alignment, such technology is not universally available and is associated with significant costs and additional surgical/anesthetic time. In the current study, we found that a routine intraoperative pelvic radiograph could successfully identify malpositioned components and leg length inequalities and could allow for successful correction of identified problems. Unexpected component malposition and leg length inequality occurred in only 1.5% of cases where an intraoperative pelvic radiograph was utilized. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Bunn A.,Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic
Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society | Year: 2014

Hip dislocation is a major short-term complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). One factor thought to reduce the risk for dislocation is head size. We constructed subject-specific computer models to study the effect of head size on risk for postoperative dislocation. Femoral and acetabular geometry was constructed after segmenting CT scans of nine hips. CAD models of THA components with four head diameters (28, 32, 36, and 44 mm) were virtually implanted. Hip capsular ligaments were simulated using rigid-body ellipsoids connected by non-linear springs. Posterior dislocation was simulated during a rise from a low chair; anterior dislocation was simulated during a pivot activity. Intraoperative stability tests were simulated for anterior or posterior dislocation. While rising from a low chair (posterior dislocation) and during the pivot activity (anterior dislocation), increasing head size significantly increased hip flexion angle at dislocation and generated higher dislocation moments. Larger heads reduced the risk for dislocation. Intraoperative stability tests detected the relative increased resistance to dislocation despite differences in the absolute magnitude of moments. This model can be useful preclinical tool for assessing design changes, the effect of component placement, and the activity-based risk for dislocation. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

D'Lima D.D.,Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic | Fregly B.J.,University of Florida | Colwell Jr. C.W.,Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2012

Stresses and strains are major factors influencing growth, remodeling and repair of musculoskeletal tissues. Therefore, knowledge of forces and deformation within bones and joints is critical to gain insight into the complex behavior of these tissues during development, aging, and response to injury and disease. Sensors have been used in vivo to measure strains in bone, intraarticular cartilage contact pressures, and forces in the spine, shoulder, hip, and knee. Implantable sensors have a high impact on several clinical applications, including fracture fixation, spine fixation, and joint arthroplasty. This review summarizes the developments in strain-measurement-based implantable sensor technology for musculoskeletal research. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd.

Hoenecke H.R.,Scripps Research Institute | Hoenecke H.R.,Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic | Tibor L.M.,Sierra Park Orthopedics and Sports Medicine | D'Lima D.D.,Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: Glenoid retroversion is thought be important in shoulder stability before and after shoulder arthroplasty; thus, many authors recommend glenoid reaming to correct retroversion and improve stability. Genetic analysis has revealed that glenoid vault and scapular development are controlled by different genes and environmental factors, resulting in diverse glenoid morphologies. We therefore analyzed the relative contribution of glenoid morphology and version to humeral head position. Materials and methods: We obtained 121 shoulder computed tomography scans preoperatively for shoulder arthroplasty. Humeral subluxation and glenoid version were measured on the axial image at the middle of each glenoid. Glenoid morphology was characterized as biconcave, worn, displaced, dysplastic, angled, or neutral. The strength of the correlation between humeral subluxation, glenoid version, and glenoid morphology was analyzed. Results: Glenoid version did not correlate with humeral subluxation. The highest frequency of posterior subluxation was noted in biconcave glenoids. Shoulders with other glenoid morphologies were more likely to have anterior or central positioning of the humerus. The mean subluxation ratio for biconcave glenoids was 0.56 and was significantly different from all other morphologies (P < .02). Discussion/Conclusion: Even in the arthritic shoulder, glenoid orientation does not appear to explain the complex biomechanics of shoulder stability. The causes of humeral head subluxation before and after total shoulder arthroplasty are likely multifactorial and may include static and dynamic soft-tissue forces. The biconcave glenoid deserves more attention at surgery because of the high association with posterior subluxation. © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees.

Hoenecke H.R.,Scripps Research Institute | Flores-Hernandez C.,Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic | D'Lima D.D.,Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education at Scripps Clinic
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery | Year: 2014

Background: Medialization of the glenohumeral center of rotation alters the moment arm of the deltoid, can affect muscle function, and increases the risk for scapular notching due to impingement. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of position of the glenosphere on deltoid efficiency and the range of glenohumeral adduction. Methods: Scapulohumeral bone models were reconstructed from computed tomography scans and virtually implanted with primary or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty implants. The placement of the glenosphere was varied to simulate differing degrees of "medialization" and inferior placement relative to the glenoid. Muscle and joint forces were computed during shoulder abduction in OpenSim musculoskeletal modeling software. Results: The average glenohumeral joint reaction forces for the primary total shoulder arthroplasty were within 5% of those previously reported invivo. Superior placement or full lateralization of the glenosphere increased glenohumeral joint reaction forces by 10% and 18%, respectively, relative to the recommended reverse total shoulder arthroplasty position. The moment arm of the deltoid muscle was the highest at the recommended baseline surgical position. The baseline glenosphere position resulted in a glenohumeral adduction deficit averaging more than 10° that increased to more than 25° when the glenosphere was placed superiorly. Only with full lateralization was glenohumeral adduction unaffected by superoinferior placement. Discussion/Conclusion: Selecting optimum placement of the glenosphere involves tradeoffs in bending moment at the implant-bone interface, risk for impingement, and deltoid efficiency. A viable option is partially medializing the glenosphere, which retains most of the benefits of deltoid efficiency and reduces the risk for scapular notching. © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees.

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