Shikoku Junior College

Tokushima-shi, Japan

Shikoku Junior College

Tokushima-shi, Japan
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Yoshida I.,Shikoku Junior College | Ito C.,Tokushima University | Matsuda S.,Tokushima University | Tsuji A.,Tokushima University | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2017

To develop new whitening agents from natural products, we screened 80 compounds derived from crude drugs in Kampo medicine in a melanin synthesis inhibition assay using murine B16 melanoma cells. The screen revealed that treatment with alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, significantly decreased both melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. However, alisol B did not directly inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of alisol B on melanogenesis. Alisol B suppressed mRNA induction of tyrosinase and its transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Furthermore, alisol B reduced the phosphorylation of CREB and maintained the activation of ERK1/2. These results suggest that the reduction in melanin production by alisol B is due to the downregulation of MITF through the suppression of CREB and activation of ERK and that alisol B may be useful as a new whitening agent. © 2017 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.


Itoh M.,Shikoku University | Hiroi T.,Shikoku University | Nishibori N.,Shikoku Junior College | Sagara T.,Shikoku Junior College | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2013

The neurotoxic effects of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) are suggested to be connected with the chronic loss of neuronal cells, thereby being responsible for the age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the excitatory amino acid transporters may contribute to the protection of neuronal cells against the excitotoxic damage by facilitating the removal of EAAs from the brain tissue. On the other hand, previous studies have suggested that glial cell differentiation may be involved in the protection and recovery of neural function probably through the elevation of BDNF gene expression in the brain. Based on these findings, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are assumed to induce glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) gene expression probably through the promotion of glial cell differentiation. Then, we examined the effects of HDAC inhibitors on GLT-1 mRNA levels in rat C6 glioma cells and found that trichostatin A can induce GLT-1 gene transcription following steroid 5α-reductase and GFAP gene expression. Therefore, it seems conceivable that glial cell differentiation may play a potential role in the removal of EAAs probably through the expression of GLT-1, thereby being involved in the protection of neuronal cells against the chronic excitotoxic insults in the brain. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Nishibori N.,Shikoku Junior College | Nishibori N.,Shikoku University | Kishibuchi R.,Shikoku University | Her S.,Korea Basic Science Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dietary Supplements | Year: 2017

Polyphenolic compounds have been suggested to be involved in the preservation of neural function via the production of neurotrophic factors in the brain. The nonedible joint part of lotus root (a rhizome of Nelumbo nucifera) has been reported to contain large amounts of polyphenolic compounds and, therefore, is expected to improve neural function by stimulating the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in glial cells. The effect of the aqueous extract prepared from the joint part of lotus root on BDNF gene expression was examined in C6 glioma cells as an in vitro model. This extract was shown to increase BDNF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels to the elevation of HO-1 mRNA levels in the glioma cells, but failed to cause the elevation of BDNF mRNA levels in the cells pretreated with a HO-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) or an HO-1 enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). These findings strongly suggest that the aqueous extract prepared from the nonedible joint part of lotus root might be able to stimulate BDNF gene expression by enhancing HO-1 activity in the glioma cells, proposing the possibility that the joint part of lotus root might potentially improve neural function through the stimulation of BDNF production in glial cells. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Nishibori N.,Shikoku Junior College | Itoh M.,Shikoku University | Kashiwagi M.,Shikoku University | Arimochi H.,Tokushima University | Morita K.,Shikoku University
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2012

Brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar is popular as a foodstuff, and used for medical care in East Asian countries. The major components of this seaweed are shown to benefit hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and considered to reduce the risks of infarction and ischemic diseases. Furthermore, the intake of dietary fiber of seaweeds is considered to prevent the production and proliferation of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract. The direct effect of an ethanol extract prepared from Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll (mekabu) on HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells was examined, and the mekabu extract was shown to induce the non-oxidative apoptotic damage to the cells, thus resulting in the reduction of their viabilities in a concentration- dependent manner. Moreover, the cytotoxic effects of carcinostatic drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan (CPT-11), were observed only in the medium containing sera, while the mekabu extract could effectively reduce the cell viabilities even in the serum-free medium. These findings suggest that the mekabu extract may contain a potential active substance inducing the non-oxidative apoptotic cell death probably through a mechanism different from those of 5-FU and CPT-11, and hence mekabu is possibly useful as an auxiliary drug to the chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Sagara T.,Shikoku Junior College | Nishibori N.,Shikoku Junior College | Itoh M.,Shikoku University | Morita K.,Shikoku University | Her S.,Korea Basic Science Institute
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2013

Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that causies serious damage to various tissues and organs. It has been reported to affect the transport of cations across the plasma membranes, which is commonly recognized as being the principal mechanism of its highly toxic action on mammals, including humans. However, although some marine toxins have been shown to cause toxic effects on the nervous system by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses, the effect of PTX on neuronal cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the toxic action of PTX on PC12 cells was examined as an in vitro model experiment to elucidate the neurotoxic properties of this toxin, and PTX was shown to reduce the viability of PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic action of PTX was not significantly altered by the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and reduced-form glutathione in the cultures. Fluorescence staining of the cells and the electrophoretic analysis of genomic DNA showed that PTX failed to cause chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation within the cells. On the other hand, the exposure to PTX caused positive staining of the cytoplasmic space of the cells with propidium iodide and the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium. Based on these observations, PTX is considered to cause cell death as a consequence of disrupting the plasma membranes, thus causing nonoxidative necrotic damage to PC12 cells. copy; 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Nishibori N.,Shikoku Junior College | Nishibori N.,Shikoku University | Kishibuchi R.,Shikoku University | Morita K.,Shikoku University
Journal of Dietary Supplements | Year: 2016

Soy pulp, called “okara” in Japanese, is known as a by-product of the production of bean curd (tofu), and expected to contain a variety of biologically active substances derived from soybean. However, the biological activities of okara ingredients have not yet been fully understood, and the effectiveness of okara as a functional food seems necessary to be further evaluated. Then the effect of okara extract on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was examined in vitro, and the extract was shown to cause the inhibition of ACE activity in a manner depending on its concentration. Kinetic analysis indicated that this enzyme inhibition was accompanied by an increase in the Km value without any change in Vmax. Further studies suggested that putative inhibitory substances contained in the extract might be heat stable and dialyzable, and recovered mostly in the peptide fraction obtained by a spin-column separation and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation. Therefore, the extract was speculated to contain small-size peptides responsible for the inhibitory effect of okara extract on ACE activity, and could be expected to improve the hypertensive conditions by reducing the production of hypertensive peptide. 2016 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Itoh M.,Shikoku University | Nishibori N.,Shikoku Junior College | Sagara T.,Shikoku Junior College | Horie Y.,Kohken Co. Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2012

Brown rice fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, is a dietary fiber-rich food, and fully appreciated as one of the prebiotics, which are generally considered to be beneficial to the health of the body, because of stimulating the growth and/or the activity of bacteria in the digestive system. To assess the effectiveness of FBRA as a functional food, the direct effect of FBRA extract on human colorectal tumor cells was examined. The exposure of HCT116 cells to FBRA extract reduced their viabilities in a concentration- dependent manner, and the reduction of the cell viability might be attributed to the induction of apoptosis probably through the oxidative damage to the cells. Further studies showed that FBRA extract caused a significant elevation of Bax protein and a slight reduction of Bcl2 protein levels, and furthermore caused the activation of caspase-3 in the cells. Thus, it seems reasonable to conclude that FBRA extract can exert oxidative damage to the cells, resulting in apoptotic cell death by activating the mitochondrial pathway in human colorectal tumor cells. Therefore, daily intake of FBRA can be expected to be beneficial for preventing carcinogenesis and/or suppressing tumor growth in the digestive tract. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Shikoku Junior College and Shikoku University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dietary supplements | Year: 2016

Soy pulp, called okara in Japanese, is known as a by-product of the production of bean curd (tofu), and expected to contain a variety of biologically active substances derived from soybean. However, the biological activities of okara ingredients have not yet been fully understood, and the effectiveness of okara as a functional food seems necessary to be further evaluated. Then the effect of okara extract on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was examined in vitro, and the extract was shown to cause the inhibition of ACE activity in a manner depending on its concentration. Kinetic analysis indicated that this enzyme inhibition was accompanied by an increase in the Km value without any change in Vmax. Further studies suggested that putative inhibitory substances contained in the extract might be heat stable and dialyzable, and recovered mostly in the peptide fraction obtained by a spin-column separation and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation. Therefore, the extract was speculated to contain small-size peptides responsible for the inhibitory effect of okara extract on ACE activity, and could be expected to improve the hypertensive conditions by reducing the production of hypertensive peptide.


PubMed | Hiroshima University, Shikoku Junior College and Tokushima University
Type: | Journal: Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry | Year: 2017

To develop new whitening agents from natural products, we screened 80 compounds derived from crude drugs in Kampo medicine in a melanin synthesis inhibition assay using murine B16 melanoma cells. The screen revealed that treatment with alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, significantly decreased both melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. However, alisol B did not directly inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of alisol B on melanogenesis. Alisol B suppressed mRNA induction of tyrosinase and its transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Furthermore, alisol B reduced the phosphorylation of CREB and maintained the activation of ERK1/2. These results suggest that the reduction in melanin production by alisol B is due to the downregulation of MITF through the suppression of CREB and activation of ERK and that alisol B may be useful as a new whitening agent.


PubMed | Shikoku Junior College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied toxicology : JAT | Year: 2013

Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that causies serious damage to various tissues and organs. It has been reported to affect the transport of cations across the plasma membranes, which is commonly recognized as being the principal mechanism of its highly toxic action on mammals, including humans. However, although some marine toxins have been shown to cause toxic effects on the nervous system by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses, the effect of PTX on neuronal cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the toxic action of PTX on PC12 cells was examined as an in vitro model experiment to elucidate the neurotoxic properties of this toxin, and PTX was shown to reduce the viability of PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic action of PTX was not significantly altered by the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and reduced-form glutathione in the cultures. Fluorescence staining of the cells and the electrophoretic analysis of genomic DNA showed that PTX failed to cause chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation within the cells. On the other hand, the exposure to PTX caused positive staining of the cytoplasmic space of the cells with propidium iodide and the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium. Based on these observations, PTX is considered to cause cell death as a consequence of disrupting the plasma membranes, thus causing nonoxidative necrotic damage to PC12 cells.

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