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Freeman R.,Public Health England | Freeman R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dabrera G.,Public Health England | Dabrera G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 14 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2016

In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 8.8, 95% CI 2.0-38.3). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of Salmonella. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in Salmonella infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage. Copyright © Crown Copyright. Published by Cambridge University Press 2015.


He M.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Miyajima F.,University of Liverpool | Roberts P.,University of Liverpool | Ellison L.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | And 34 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Epidemic C. difficile (027/BI/NAP1) has rapidly emerged in the past decade as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. However, the key events in evolutionary history leading to its emergence and the subsequent patterns of global spread remain unknown. Here, we define the global population structure of C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 using whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We show that two distinct epidemic lineages, FQR1 and FQR2, not one as previously thought, emerged in North America within a relatively short period after acquiring the same fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation and a highly related conjugative transposon. The two epidemic lineages showed distinct patterns of global spread, and the FQR2 lineage spread more widely, leading to healthcare-associated outbreaks in the UK, continental Europe and Australia. Our analysis identifies key genetic changes linked to the rapid transcontinental dissemination of epidemic C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 and highlights the routes by which it spreads through the global healthcare system. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Cleary P.,Public Health England | Browning L.,Health Protection Scotland HPS | Coia J.,Shigella and Clostridium difficile Reference Laboratory | Cowden J.,Health Protection Scotland HPS | And 7 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2010

We report the preliminary findings of the investigation of an outbreak of foodborne Salmonella Bareilly. Between August and November 2010, there were 231 laboratory-confirmed reports of S. Bareilly in the United Kingdom. A case-control study showed that consumption of bean sprouts was significantly associated with illness. The investigation concluded that raising public awareness to ensure the correct preparation of raw bean sprouts during cooking was the principal means of preventing further cases.


Chattaway M.A.,Public Health England | Harris R.,Public Health England | Jenkins C.,Public Health England | Tam C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

There are an estimated 17 million human diarrhoea cases annually in the United Kingdom. In 2008 and 2009, enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were identified in 1.9% of stools. However, it remains unclear whether there is a causal link between presence of EAEC and disease. This study used bacterial load, the presence of co-infections and demographic data to assess if EAEC was independently associated with intestinal infectious disease. Quantitative real-time PCR data (Ct values) generated directly from stool specimens for several pathogen targets were analysed to identify multiple pathogens, including EAEC, in the stools of cases and healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity using Ct value (60% and 60%) was not useful for identifying cases or controls, but an independent association between disease and EAEC presence was demonstrated: multivariate logistic regression for EAEC presence (odds ratio: 2.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.78-3.26; p<0.001). The population-attributable fraction was 3.3%. The group of bacteria known as EAEC are associated with gastrointestinal disease in at least half of the cases with EAEC positive stools. We conclude that the current definition of EAEC, by plasmid gene detection, includes true pathogens as well as non-pathogenic variants. © 2007-2013. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Public Health England, Food Standards Agency, Shigella and Clostridium difficile Reference Laboratory, Colindale Reference Microbiology Services and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2016

In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 88, 95% CI 20-383). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of Salmonella. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in Salmonella infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage.

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