Fernandes A.,SHIATS |
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2015
This digital era has seen a tremendous growth in technology and we find ourselves amidst vast amounts of data that needs to be accessed and shared with people all over the World. A challenge is posed when data has to be transmitted secretly and securely. This paper presents a scheme for covert communication using data compression and the arithmetic division operation. The secret data is first compressed using a compression algorithm and then embedded into the edges of the cover image using an arithmetic division operation and various other logical operations. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique provides a stego image of good visual quality. Our steganographic technique also achieves a good Peak Signal to Noise Ratio as well as a good Structural Similarity Index value. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Kuddus M.,Integral University |
Kuddus M.,Shaqra University |
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2012
Microbial proteases that occupy a pivotal position with respect to their commercial applications are most important hydrolytic enzymes and have been studied extensively since the advent of enzymology. Cold-adapted microorganisms are potential source of cold-active proteases and they have been isolated from the cold regions. Although there are many microbial sources available for producing proteases, only few are recognized as commercial producer. Cold-active proteases along with their producing microbes are of commercial value and find multiple applications in various industrial and biotechnological sectors such as additives in detergents, additives in food industries, environmental bioremediations, biotransformation and molecular biology applications. Therefore, cold-active proteases are the enzymes of choice for many biotechnologists, microbiologists, biochemists, environmentalists and biochemical engineers. In the present review, we discuss some novel sources along with recent developments in production and biotechnological applications of cold-active microbial proteases. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Pandey A.,SHIATS |
Ramteke P.W.,SHIATS |
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013
The concentration of Chromium(Cr),Copper(Cu),Iron(Fe),Nickel(Ni), Lead (Pb)and Zinc(Zn). Which may effect human health and the health of the aquatic ecosystem were determined in the rivers Ganga and Yamuna on seven sampling stations at Allahabad using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, Spectra AA 220 G, Varian pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad. The levels of the heavy metals were compared with BIS, 2005 and WHO, 1993. All the heavy metals at all the sampling stations were found above the permissible limits. The concentration of these heavy metals in the study area indicated that the river is highly polluted. The possible sources of these heavy metal pollutions are diverse: originating from natural or anthropogenic sources and point sources.
Masih J.,Wilson College |
Singhvi R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Taneja A.,Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University |
Kumar K.,University of Delhi |
Sustainable Cities and Society | Year: 2012
The concentration of twenty-three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the outdoor environment of rural homes in the North central part of India during three consecutive season winter, summer and rainy (November 2006-October 2007). The gaseous phase PAHs were collected by using XAD-2 resin tubes (600 mg) followed by a PTFE filter paper (37 μm dia) for particulate bound PAHs at a flow rate of 3 Lpm for 24 h. The individual PAHs were identified by using a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry detector (GC/MS). The results showed that average concentration of (gas + particulate) PAHs varied with season. It ranged from (21.91-1290.50 ng/m 3) being the highest in winter, lower in summer (11.18-613.00 ng/m 3) and lowest in the rainy season (13.10-272.50 ng/m 3) respectively. The total PAHs concentrations in the air were 32.56% and 61.97% higher in winter season from summer and rainy season respectively. It was indicated that the two, three and four rings PAHs were predominantly in gaseous phase while the five and six rings PAHs were primarily associated with the particulate phase. Among the 23 PAHs, naphthalene was the most abundant PAH. It contributed 30.99-55.81% to the sum of PAHs in three different seasons. The trend of the concentrations of the major PAHs found in present study were Nap > 2 methyl Nap > 1 methyl Nap > biphenyl > acenapthylene at all the sampling locations. The average BaP equivalent exposure, calculated by using toxic equivalent factors was approximately 27.95 ng/m 3. Correlation and factor analysis was applied to identify the probable sources of PAHs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Kuddus M.,Hail University |
Singh P.,SHIATS |
Thomas G.,SHIATS |
Al-Hazimi A.,Hail University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013
An extensive range of pigments including phycobiliproteins are present in algae. C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a phycobiliprotein, is one of the key pigments of Spirulina, a microalgae used in many countries as a dietary supplement. Algal pigments have massive commercial value as natural colorants in nutraceutical, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, besides their health benefits. At present, increasing awareness of harmful effects of synthetic compounds and inclination of community towards the usage of natural products have led to the exploitation of microalgae as a source of natural pigments/colors. This review describes recent findings about the sources and production of C-PC, with emphasis on specific techniques for extraction and purification, along with potential industrial applications in diagnostics, foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. © 2013 M. Kuddus et al.
Prema N.,S.H.I.A.T.S |
Optik | Year: 2016
This article takes research on a novel design of multiband microstrip patch antenna. The proposed multiband microstrip patch antenna can resonate at 7 unique frequencies between 4 GHz and 14 GHz. To accomplish multiband frequency, a rectangular slot can be inserted in the ground plane of the patch antenna. It can achieve the reflected power of −19.58 dB, −15.24 dB, −20.12 dB, −19.27 dB, −27.13 dB, −14.46 dB and −25.69 dB at 4.30 GHz, 5.51 GHz, 6.42 GHz, 8.55 GHz, 9.55 GHz, 11.47 GHz, and 12.58 GHz, respectively. The obtained bandwidth is good and better voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is less than 2. The performance of proposed multiband antenna is simulated and validated by measurements. Furthermore, the effectiveness of proposed multiband patch antenna has been verified through surface current distribution and efficiency of measured results. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH
Kuddus M.,Hail University |
Joseph B.,Shaqra University |
Wasudev Ramteke P.,SHIATS
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology | Year: 2013
A novel laccase enzyme producing bacterium, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 7525, was isolated and subjected to optimization of laccase production. Maximum production (94.10. U/ml) was achieved at 30. °C and pH 8 (108. h incubation) with 10% skim milk and 1. mM sodium nitrate as additional nitrogen source. The laccase was purified by salt precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography which showed 6.44 fold purification. The purified enzyme had optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 40. °C, and showed stability in DMSO retaining more than 85% of original activity. In presence of manganese and cadmium, enzyme retained >95% and 92% activity, respectively. The molecular weight of laccases was 39.5. kDa and activity was inhibited by pCMB (93%). The synthetic dyes (0.02%) and industrial effluents (10%) were decolorized to 74-93 and 58-68%, respectively when treated with culture of P. putida. However, the culture supernatant of P. putida showed about 36-94 and 16-86% decolorization of synthetic dyes and effluents, respectively within 24. h of incubation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Behari P.C.,Birla Institute of Technology |
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014
The traditional water mills have low output with primarily use of grinding. The up gradation and improvement of these water mills is an effective and sustainable way of meeting the energy needs of a major section of the hilly people. This study discusses the case study of standard water mills developed in order to cover the entire range of water mills sites in Uttaranchal. Based on the site data available, 1 standard water mills have been designed, developed and tested for their performance. The developed water mills at Kherola village near Bhimtal, district Nainital have been found efficient. The status of water mills, energy situation in Uttarakhand, impact of water mill upgrade and the developed system have also been discussed.
Assessing the performance and uncertainty analysis of the SWAT and RBNN models for simulation of sediment yield in the Nagwa watershed, India [Evaluation de la performance et de lincertitude des modèles de simulation de la production de sédiments SWAT et RBNN, dans le bassin versant de Nagwa (Inde)]
Singh A.,North Bengal Agricultural University |
Imtiyaz M.,SHIATS |
Isaac R.K.,SHIATS |
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2014
The process-based Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and the data-driven radial basis neural network (RBNN) model were evaluated for simulating sediment load for the Nagwa watershed in Jharkhand, India, where soil erosion is a severe problem. The SWAT model calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed with the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting algorithm version 2 and the bootstrap technique was applied on the RBNN model to analyse uncertainty in model output. The percentage of data bracketed by the 95% prediction uncertainty (95PPU) and the r factor were the two measures used to assess the goodness of calibration. Comparison of the results of the two models shows that the value of r factor (r = 0.41) in the RBNN model is less than that of SWAT model (r = 0.79), which means there is a wider prediction interval for the SWAT model results. More values of observed sediment yield were bracketed by the 95PPU in the RBNN model. Thus, the RBNN model estimates the sediment yield values more accurately and with less uncertainty. © 2014 © 2014 IAHS Press.
Singh J.,SHIATS |
2013 International Conference on Control, Computing, Communication and Materials, ICCCCM 2013 | Year: 2013
Wireless network is one of the wide areas of interest due to the advanced services they provide. As in the modern era, advanced technologies in wireless network are developing at a rapid rate so it is also necessary to increase the quality & services of them. Recently developed technology like 3G, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, LTE etc are widely used over the world and provides many varieties of services. This paper comparatively analyze the two advanced technology of wireless network: WiMAX and 3G network on the basis of several parameters like energy efficiency, QoS etc to evaluate their performance to find out which networks present the best services and advantages. The metrics used for performance evaluation are Average Jitter, Average Delay, Energy Consumption, Average Queue length, Signal Received with Errors, Total unicast data sent & received, Unicast received Throughput of the WiMAX and 3G network using QualNet 6.1 simulator. © 2013 IEEE.