Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology

www.skuastkashmir.ac.in
Jammu, India

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural science and Technology was an Agricultural University in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It was established in the year 1982 through an Act passed by the State Legislature.The University was named after Kashmiri leader Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah who is popularly known as Sher-e-Kashmir Initially, the university had jurisdiction over the entire State of Jammu & Kashmir with its headquarters at Shalimar, Srinagar. With the SKUAST Act in force, the agricultural education, research and extension training units were transferred to SKUAST from various development departments viz; Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Sheep Husbandry and Sericulture of Jammu & Kashmir State.In the year 1998-99, the territorial jurisdiction of the University was redefined by amending the SKUAST Act 1982 under which a separate agricultural University was established for Jammu Division and named as Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural science and Technology of Jammu with its territorial jurisdiction extended to the entire Jammu Division. The parent University was renamed as Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural science and Technology of Kashmir Wikipedia.

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Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Bhat H.,University Of Kashmir
International Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

Role of food as an agent for improving health has proposed a new class of food, called functional food, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value. Milk and dairy products have been associated with health benefits for many years containing bioactive peptides, probioticbacteria, antioxidants, vitamins, specific proteins, oligosaccharides, organic acids, highly absorbable calcium, conjugated linoleic acid and other biologically active components with an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth and immunoregulation. Consumer's increasing interest for maintaining or improving their health by eating these specific food products has led to the development of many new functional dairy products. These dairy products contain many functional ingredients that decrease the absorption of cholesterol, can significantly reduce blood pressure, play role in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders and may exert antimicrobial effects. This paper reviews and discusses some of the latest findings regarding the role of milk and dairy products as functional foods. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Bhat H.,University Of Kashmir
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2011

Nutrition-related diseases, food borne illnesses, resource use and pollution and use of farm animals are some serious consequences associated with conventional meat production system and consumers have expressed growing concern over them. Biofabrication, production of complex living and non-living biological products, is a potential solution to reduce these ill effects of current meat production system. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the long term, biofabrication can contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies that can dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing animal-free food, leather and fur products. In this study we review the possibility of producing in vitro meat using tissue-engineering techniques that may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and land use associated with current meat production systems. Besides, reducing the animal suffering significantly, it will also ensure sustainable production of designer, chemically safe and disease free meat as the conditions in an in vitro meat production system are controlled and manipulatable. The techniques required to produce in vitro meat are not beyond imagination and the basic methodology of an in vitro meat production system (IMPS) involves culturing muscle tissue in a liquid medium on a large scale but the production of highly-structured, unprocessed meat faces considerably greater technical challenges and a great deal of research is still needed to establish a sustainable in vitro meat culturing system on an industrial scale. In the long term, tissue-engineered meat is the inescapable future of humanity. However, in the short term the extremely high prohibitive cost of the biofabrication of tissue-engineered meat is the main potential obstacle, although large-scale production and market penetration are usually associated with a dramatic price reduction. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Koch H.,ETH Zurich | Koch H.,Yale University | Abrol D.P.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Li J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Schmid-Hempel P.,ETH Zurich
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2013

The animal gut is a habitat for diverse communities of microorganisms (microbiota). Honeybees and bumblebees have recently been shown to harbour a distinct and species poor microbiota, which may confer protection against parasites. Here, we investigate diversity, host specificity and transmission mode of two of the most common, yet poorly known, gut bacteria of honeybees and bumblebees: Snodgrassella alvi (Betaproteobacteria) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria). We analysed 16S rRNA gene sequences of these bacteria from diverse bee host species across most of the honeybee and bumblebee phylogenetic diversity from North America, Europe and Asia. These focal bacteria were present in 92% of bumblebee species and all honeybee species but were found to be absent in the two related corbiculate bee tribes, the stingless bees (Meliponini) and orchid bees (Euglossini). Both Snodgrassella alvi and Gilliamella apicola phylogenies show significant topological congruence with the phylogeny of their bee hosts, albeit with a considerable degree of putative host switches. Furthermore, we found that phylogenetic distances between Gilliamella apicola samples correlated with the geographical distance between sampling locations. This tentatively suggests that the environmental transmission rate, as set by geographical distance, affects the distribution of G. apicola infections. We show experimentally that both bacterial taxa can be vertically transmitted from the mother colony to daughter queens, and social contact with nest mates after emergence from the pupa greatly facilitates this transmission. Therefore, sociality may play an important role in vertical transmission and opens up the potential for co-evolution or at least a close association of gut bacteria with their hosts. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Garg N.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Dadhich S.M.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2014

A non-linear optimization model for deficit irrigation is proposed in the present study to maximize the net financial return within the available resource constraints. The deficit levels of irrigation are kept as variables in the model with a flexibility to keep the crops either at full irrigation or deficit irrigation in order to maximize the net financial return. The model optimizes the deficit levels, cropping pattern and decade (10 days) optimal water withdrawals for the existing land and water resources. The proposed model is applied to Khairpur East canal command of the Lower Indus Basin. The overall optimal net financial return was increased by 92.5% and the total optimal cropped area was enhanced by 109.7% under deficit irrigation as compared to the existing cropping pattern although the net financial return per hectare of land was reduced under deficit irrigation. The optimal net financial return can further be increased by 17.5% if the existing tube well capacity is augmented by 75% in the command area. The surface water availability was also reduced to work out its impact on the optimal cropped area. Although the net financial returns reduced with a reduction in the surface water availability but the optimal irrigated cropped area remained almost the same under deficit irrigation. However the cropping pattern and optimal deficit levels of different crops changed as the surface water availability is reduced. Further, a balanced optimal production of crops would require imposing upper and lower constraints on the quantity of the production of crops in place of crop areas under deficit irrigation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Garg N.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Dadhich S.M.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2014

Yield response factors of a given crop can be determined following the FAO approach (Doorenbos and Kassam, 1979. Yield response to water. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper no. 33. Rome, Italy, pp. 1-40) either by applying deficit irrigation throughout the whole growing period, or at one stage of the crop growth while maintaining full irrigation at the other stages. In this study, an inverse formulation methodology is proposed to determine the stage wise yield response factors (modified kyi values) for eight crops in the Lower Indus Basin. The proposed inverse formulation was based on the multiplicative (Jensen, 1968. Water consumption by agricultural plants. Chapter 1. In: T.T. Kozlowski (Ed.) Water Deficits and Plant Growth Vol. II (pp 1-22). Academic Press, New York) and additive (Stewart et al., 1977. Determination and utilization of water production functions for principal California crops. W-67 California Contributory Project, University of California) approaches to determine yield response factors. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed inverse formulation, the widely used seasonal ky values of FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No 33 (Doorenbos and Kassam, 1979. Yield response to water. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper no. 33. Rome, Italy, pp. 1-40) were used to generate a data set of yields and evapotranspirations for the crops under study after applying theoretical levels of deficit irrigation at different growth stages using climatic and soil data of the Lower Indus Basin. This data set was then used to estimate the modified kyi values separately for the additive and the multiplicative approaches from the inverse formulations. Modified kyi values were found to be different for additive and multiplicative approaches but there was a good agreement between the relative yield reductions using modified kyi values and seasonal ky values. However, there was a complete mismatch between relative yield reductions using FAO 33 stage wise kyi values and using FAO 33 seasonal ky values. Modified kyi values, based on the proposed inverse formulation, may be more representative by taking into account the effects of deficit irrigation on crop production. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Lohan S.K.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Sharma S.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Jammu and Kashmir State of India is one of the energy starved states despite of having tremendous potential for utilization of renewable energy. The natural energy sources like sunshine, wind, vegetation, water flow, biomass and other biological wastes are abundantly available in the state yet are not being potentially harnessed resulting in very low per capita energy availability forcing peoples to use wood resulting into deforestation. The fossils fuels, which pollute the environment, are extensively utilized even though they are not sustainable. Developing and properly implementing renewable energy technologies in this state can provide secure energy supply for rapid domestic and industrial development which will attract new investments, thereby creates additional employment. It shall also generate additional state income by allowing the state to sell renewable energy trading certificates to other states. Therefore, it is important that the region moves to clear and sustainable energy. This paper presents an overview of the present status of renewable energy development and summarizes key issues in each of the major industrial segments. It also examines crucial gaps in the renewable energy market, describes the goals set out by various government programs, and estimates the resources and effort required to meet these goals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Peshin R.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

The huge research efforts to develop integrated pest management (IPM) have failed to reduce pesticide use and to foster IPM adoption by farmers. Indeed, despite five decades since the concept of integrated control and threshold theory was developed, and four decades since IPM programs have been implemented in USA, Asia, Latin America, Australia, and India, the widespread use of complex IPM practices has not been adopted. This failure can be explained by IPM complexity, policy restrictions, and counteracting forces of the pesticide industry. This article is a study of drivers that rule the adoption or rejection of IPM by 150 farmers from the Indian state of Punjab. Cotton was cultivated under an insecticide resistance management-based IPM program. This program was implemented in Punjab from 2002 to 2007. A rating scale was developed to measure farmers' perceived attitudes. An adoptability index was developed. Results show that farmers exhibited very different adoption attitudes. Specifically, farmers adopted widely practices that have no complexity, higher economic advantage, and observability. IPM practices with adoptability indices higher than 0.60 have been widely adopted. The predicted adoptability and effective actual adoption of IPM practices were well correlated with a correlation coefficient of 0.88. Technological attributes complexity and relative economic advantage induced a variation of 99 % in the adoptability. Overall the findings show that relative economic advantage, benefit visibility, compatibility with past experiences, and complexity are the most effective drivers in predicting adoption or rejection. Whereas, unexpectedly, socio-personal and economic factors used by most scientists are relatively insignificant. The new methodological frame can be applied to predict the adoption of agricultural innovations. © 2013 INRA and Springer-Verlag France.


Sharma V.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

In vitro assay for cytotoxic activity of glands/hairs obtained from the fruits of Mallotus philippinensis has been carried out against 14 human cancer cell lines from nine different origins via 95% ethanolic, 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. Results revealed that the 95% ethanolic extract showed highest in vitro cytotoxic effect against all the 14 human cancer cell lines. The fractions of the same extract i. e. 95% ethanolic were obtained and it was found that the significant cytotoxic potential was produced by the chloroform soluble fraction at 100 μg/ml as this fraction inhibited the growth of ten human cancer cell lines from seven different tissues. Further, the chromatographic analysis of the said fraction afforded a polyphenolic molecule rottlerin. This drug at the concentration of 1 × 10-5M and 1 × 10-4M suppressed the proliferation of eight human cancer cell lines from six different tissues and proved its exceptionally remarkable in vitro anticancer efficiency. © 2011 Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology.


Shafiq-Ur-Rehman,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2013

Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant heavy metals on earth considered as number one environmental persistent toxin and health hazard affecting millions of people in all age groups. After entering bloodstream, 99 % of Pb is accumulated in erythrocytes and causes poisoning. Toxic Pb effects on erythrocytes membrane's composition of phosphatidyl serine (PS), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidyl choline (PC), and sphingomyelin (SM), and phospholipids transmethylation were determined. Lipid peroxidation in Pb-exposed erythrocytes was evaluated as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in presence of Fe and vitamin E to understand severity of Pb toxicity and its mitigation. Pb (0.5-5.0 μM) degraded PS (12 to 31 %, P < 0.05-0.001) and elevated SM (19-51 %, P < 0.05-0.001). Composition of PC and PE were diminished (22 %) and elevated (29 %), respectively, with higher Pb exposure (5.0 μM, P < 0.001). Pb toxicity suppressed (P < 0.001) transmethylation of phospholipids in membranes (34, 41, and 50 %, respectively, with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 μM). Pb-induced dose-related MDA production (P < 0.05-0.001) in erythrocytes was obtained, which was accentuated in presence of Fe (P < 0.05-0.001). The vitamin E mitigated (P < 0.05-0.01) the severity of Pb-induced lipid peroxidation. The ratio PS/SM showed maximum change of -27 (P < 0.01), -30 (P < 0.01), and -54 % (P < 0.001), respectively at 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 μM Pb exposures. Ratios PC/SM and PS/PE were at the second, whereas PE/PS at the third order. The study suggests that the mechanisms underlying distortion of compositional phospholipids, inhibition of transmethylation, and exasperated phospholipid peroxidative damage are the active phenomena of Pb toxicity in erythrocytes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Abrol D.P.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2010

The foraging behaviour of insect visitors to onion (Allium cepa L.) flowers was studied in relation to five environmental variables. The dwarf honey bee Apis florea L. was the most abundant flower visitor, and comprised more than 94% of the total visitors. Commencement of flight activity occurred when a minimum threshold of environmental variables was exceeded, while the cessation was governed mainly by decline in light intensity and radiation. The foraging population correlated significantly and positively with air temperature, light intensity, solar radiation and nectar-sugar concentration and negatively with relative humidity. Path coefficient analysis, revealed, however, that the direct effect of temperature was large and positive followed by light intensity and solar radiation while the direct effect of relative humidity was small and negative. The direct effect of nectar-sugar concentration was positive and negligible. Path coefficient analysis thus gave a clearer picture of the effects than did a simple correlation analysis. On average A. florea visited 1.33±0.26 and 6.17±0.58 umbels and flowers / min, during different hours of the day. The insect pollinated plots produced significantly more seeds with heavier weights than those isolated from insect visits. © IBRA 2010.

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