Clayton L.H.,Shepherd University
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2010
Nutrition and diet therapy are at the center of health promotion activities and self-management of chronic diseases. To assist an individual in making informed decisions regarding his or her diet and increase adherence to dietary recommendations or treatments, healthcare professionals must select health information that is appropriate to the client's level of understanding. A systematic approach in the evaluation of patient education material, whether in print or on the World Wide Web, must focus on the information's content, literacy level, graphical displays, layout and typography, motivating principles, cultural relevance, and feasibility. Additional criteria should be evaluated when accessing Web sites and include source, site credibility, conflict of interest, disclaimer, disclosure, navigation, and interactivity information. © 2010 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Hendrickson S.L.,Shepherd University
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013
Background: Life at high altitude results in physiological and metabolic challenges that put strong evolutionary pressure on performance due to oxidative stress, UV radiation and other factors dependent on the natural history of the species. To look for genes involved in altitude adaptation in a large herbivore, this study explored genome differentiation between a feral population of Andean horses introduced by the Spanish in the 1500s to the high Andes and their Iberian breed relatives. Results: Using allelic genetic models and Fst analyses of ∼50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the horse genome, 131 candidate genes for altitude adaptation were revealed (Bonferoni of p ≤ 2 × 10-7). Significant signals included the EPAS1 in the hypoxia-induction-pathway (HIF) that was previously discovered in human studies (p = 9.27 × 10-8); validating the approach and emphasizing the importance of this gene to hypoxia adaptation. Strong signals in the cytochrome P450 3A gene family (p = 1.5 ×10-8) indicate that other factors, such as highly endemic vegetation in altitude environments are also important in adaptation. Signals in tenuerin 2 (TENM2, p = 7.9 × 10 -14) along with several other genes in the nervous system (gene categories representation p = 5.1 × 10-5) indicate the nervous system is important in altitude adaptation. Conclusions: In this study of a large introduced herbivore, it becomes apparent that some gene pathways, such as the HIF pathway are universally important for high altitude adaptation in mammals, but several others may be selected upon based on the natural history of a species and the unique ecology of the altitude environment. © 2013 Hendrickson; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Groff J.R.,Shepherd University
American Journal of Physics | Year: 2013
The logistic map difference equation is encountered in the theoretical ecology literature as a mathematical model of population change for organisms with non-overlapping generations and density-dependent dynamics influenced solely by intraspecific interactions. This article presents the logistic map as a simple model suitable for introducing students to the properties of dynamical systems including periodic orbits, bifurcations, and deterministic chaos. After a brief historical and mathematical introduction to models of population change and the logistic map, the article summarizes the logistic map activities I teach in my introductory physics laboratories for non-physics majors. The logistic map laboratory introduces the many bioscience students in my courses to a foundational model in population ecology that has inspired ecologists to recognize the importance of nonlinear dynamics in real populations. Although I use this activity in courses for non-majors, the logistic map model of population change could also be taught to physics majors to introduce properties of dynamical systems while demonstrating an application of mathematical modeling outside of traditional physics. © 2013 American Association of Physics Teachers.
Robertson L.S.,Leetown Science Center |
Robertson L.S.,Shepherd University |
Cornman R.S.,Leetown Science Center
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2014
We developed genetic resources for two North American frogs, Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, widespread native amphibians that are potential indicator species of environmental health. For both species, mRNA from multiple tissues was sequenced using 454 technology. De novo assemblies with Mira3 resulted in 50 238 contigs (N50 = 687 bp) and 48 213 contigs (N50 = 686 bp) for L. clamitans and P. regilla, respectively, after clustering with CD-Hit-EST and purging contigs below 200 bp. We performed BLASTX similarity searches against the Xenopus tropicalis proteome and, for predicted ORFs, HMMER similarity searches against the Pfam-A database. Because there is broad interest in amphibian immune factors, we manually annotated putative antimicrobial peptides. To identify conserved regions suitable for amplicon resequencing across a broad taxonomic range, we performed an additional assembly of public short-read transcriptome data derived from two species of the genus Rana and identified reciprocal best TBLASTX matches among all assemblies. Although P. regilla, a hylid frog, is substantially more diverged from the ranid species, we identified 56 genes that were sufficiently conserved to allow nondegenerate primer design with Primer3. In addition to providing a foundation for comparative genomics and quantitative gene expression analysis, our results enable quick development of nuclear sequence-based markers for phylogenetics or population genetics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd 141 January 2014 10.1111/1755-0998.12164 Resource Article RESOURCE ARTICLES Permanent Genetic Resources Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Montepare J.M.,Lasell College |
Dobish H.,Shepherd University
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences | Year: 2014
Objectives. Although theorists acknowledge that beliefs about emotions may play a role in age-related emotion behavior, no research has explored these beliefs. This research examined beliefs about the experience and expression of emotions across the life span, especially across the adult years.Method s. Younger and older adults rated the extent to which infants, children, adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults were likely to experience and express a range of emotions.Results. Younger and older adults held similar beliefs about the course of emotions across the life span. Moreover, these beliefs differed across emotion categories. In particular, although older adults were believed to experience and express fewer highly charged, negative emotions, they were expected to be more likely to experience and express positive, low arousal emotions, as well as negative, low arousal emotions. The experience and expression of positive, high arousal emotions were seen as more characteristic of very young age groups as opposed to older age groups.Discussion. These findings beg questions about if and how beliefs about emotion may affect age-related emotion regulation strategies and other everyday emotion-focused behaviors, as well as social reactions to older adults observed experiencing and expressing particular types of emotions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved.