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PubMed | University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Genomics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2016

Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

PubMed | Tsinghua University, PubBio Technology Services Corporation, Ghent University, Saitama University and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Orchids make up about 10% of all seed plant species, have great economical value, and are of specific scientific interest because of their renowned flowers and ecological adaptations. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of a lithophytic orchid, Dendrobium catenatum. We predict 28,910 protein-coding genes, and find evidence of a whole genome duplication shared with Phalaenopsis. We observed the expansion of many resistance-related genes, suggesting a powerful immune system responsible for adaptation to a wide range of ecological niches. We also discovered extensive duplication of genes involved in glucomannan synthase activities, likely related to the synthesis of medicinal polysaccharides. Expansion of MADS-box gene clades ANR1, StMADS11, and MIKC(*), involved in the regulation of development and growth, suggests that these expansions are associated with the astonishing diversity of plant architecture in the genus Dendrobium. On the contrary, members of the type I MADS box gene family are missing, which might explain the loss of the endospermous seed. The findings reported here will be important for future studies into polysaccharide synthesis, adaptations to diverse environments and flower architecture of Orchidaceae.

PubMed | Ludong University, CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Genomics and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2016

Seahorses have a specialized morphology that includes a toothless tubular mouth, a body covered with bony plates, a male brood pouch, and the absence of caudal and pelvic fins. Here we report the sequencing and de novo assembly of the genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Comparative genomic analysis identifies higher protein and nucleotide evolutionary rates in H. comes compared with other teleost fish genomes. We identified an astacin metalloprotease gene family that has undergone expansion and is highly expressed in the male brood pouch. We also find that the H. comes genome lacks enamel matrix protein-coding proline/glutamine-rich secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein genes, which might have led to the loss of mineralized teeth. tbx4, a regulator of hindlimb development, is also not found in H. comes genome. Knockout of tbx4 in zebrafish showed a pelvic fin-loss phenotype similar to that of seahorses.

PubMed | Guangxi Academy of Fisher science, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Genomics, Zhenjiang Agriculture Committee and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: GigaScience | Year: 2016

The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one of the most studied and economically important crustaceans in China. Its transition from a swimming to a crawling method of movement during early development, anadromous migration during growth, and catadromous migration during breeding have been attractive features for research. However, knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate these processes is still very limited.A total of 258.8 gigabases (Gb) of raw reads from whole-genome sequencing of the crab were generated by the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The final genome assembly (1.12 Gb), about 67.5 % of the estimated genome size (1.66 Gb), is composed of 17,553 scaffolds (>2 kb) with an N50 of 224 kb. We identified 14,436 genes using AUGUSTUS, of which 7,549 were shown to have significant supporting evidence using the GLEAN pipeline. This gene number is much greater than that of the horseshoe crab, and the annotation completeness, as evaluated by CEGMA, reached 66.9 %.We report the first genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the Chinese mitten crab. The assembled draft genome will provide a valuable resource for the study of essential developmental processes and genetic determination of important traits of the Chinese mitten crab, and also for investigating crustacean evolution.

PubMed | BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Genomics and Section on Marine biobank
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2016

Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs.

PubMed | Realbio Genomics Institute, BGI Shenzhen, Dalian Ocean University, Russian Academy of Sciences and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

The Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus), one of the worlds most expensive cultivated ornamental fishes, is an endangered species. It represents an ancient lineage of teleosts: the Osteoglossomorpha. Here, we provide a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome of a female golden-variety arowana using a combination of deep shotgun sequencing and high-resolution linkage mapping. In addition, we have also generated two draft genome assemblies for the red and green varieties. Phylogenomic analysis supports a sister group relationship between Osteoglossomorpha (bonytongues) and Elopomorpha (eels and relatives), with the two clades together forming a sister group of Clupeocephala which includes all the remaining teleosts. The arowana genome retains the full complement of eight Hox clusters unlike the African butterfly fish (Pantodon buchholzi), another bonytongue fish, which possess only five Hox clusters. Differential gene expression among three varieties provides insights into the genetic basis of colour variation. A potential heterogametic sex chromosome is identified in the female arowana karyotype, suggesting that the sex is determined by a ZW/ZZ sex chromosomal system. The high-quality reference genome of the golden arowana and the draft assemblies of the red and green varieties are valuable resources for understanding the biology, adaptation and behaviour of Asian arowanas.

PubMed | Hainan Medical University, BGI Shenzhen, BGI Zhenjiang Institute of Hydrobiology, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Genomics and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: GigaScience | Year: 2016

The venom of predatory marine cone snails mainly contains a diverse array of unique bioactive peptides commonly referred to as conopeptides or conotoxins. These peptides have proven to be valuable pharmacological probes and potential drugs because of their high specificity and affinity to important ion channels, receptors and transporters of the nervous system. Most previous studies have focused specifically on the conopeptides from piscivorous and molluscivorous cone snails, but little attention has been devoted to the dominant vermivorous species.The vermivorous Chinese tubular cone snail, Conus betulinus, is the dominant Conus species inhabiting the South China Sea. The transcriptomes of venom ducts and venom bulbs from a variety of specimens of this species were sequenced using both next-generation sequencing and traditional Sanger sequencing technologies, resulting in the identification of a total of 215 distinct conopeptides. Among these, 183 were novel conopeptides, including nine new superfamilies. It appeared that most of the identified conopeptides were synthesized in the venom duct, while a handful of conopeptides were identified only in the venom bulb and at very low levels.We identified 215 unique putative conopeptide transcripts from the combination of five transcriptomes and one EST sequencing dataset. Variation in conopeptides from different specimens of C. betulinus was observed, which suggested the presence of intraspecific variability in toxin production at the genetic level. These novel conopeptides provide a potentially fertile resource for the development of new pharmaceuticals, and a pathway for the discovery of new conotoxins.

PubMed | Shenzhen University, Sun Yat Sen University, China Fisheries Association, Smithsonian Institution and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: GigaScience | Year: 2016

Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) represent more than 50% of extant vertebrates and are of great evolutionary, ecologic and economic significance, but they are relatively underrepresented in omics studies. Increased availability of transcriptome data for these species will allow researchers to better understand changes in gene expression, and to carry out functional analyses. An international project known as the Transcriptomes of 1,000 Fishes (Fish-T1K) project has been established to generate RNA-seq transcriptome sequences for 1,000 diverse species of ray-finned fishes. The first phase of this project has produced transcriptomes from more than 180 ray-finned fishes, representing 142 species and covering 51 orders and 109 families. Here we provide an overview of the goals of this project and the work done so far.

PubMed | Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Genomics and Sun Yat Sen University
Type: | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2016

Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) have been widely cultivated in China and South-East Asian countries. As a novel hybrid offspring crossed between E. fuscogutatus and E. lanceolatus, Hulong grouper exhibits significant growth superiority over its female parent, which made it a promising farmed species in grouper aquaculture industry in China. Hulong grouper present a good combination of beneficial traits from both parent species, but the molecular mechanisms of its heterosis still remain poorly understood.Based on RNA sequencing and gene expression profiling, we conducted comparative transcriptome analyses between Hulong grouper and its parents E. fuscoguttatus & E. lanceolatus. Six hundred sixty-two and 5239 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the brains and livers, respectively. GO enrichment analysis of these DEGs revealed that metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most enriched GO terms. Further analysis showed the expressions of GnRH1 and GnRH3 in the brain, and GH/IGF axis related genes such as IGF-1, IGF-2b, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5a in the liver of the hybrid F1 were significantly up-regulated, which is in accordance with the growth superiority of hybrid grouper. Meanwhile, expressions of genes related to the protein and glycogen synthesis pathway, such as PI3KC, PI3KR, Raptor, EIF4E3, and PP1 were up-regulated, while PYG expression was down-regulated. These changes might contribute to increased protein and glycogen synthesis in the hybrid grouper.We identified a number of differentially expressed genes such as GnRH1 and GnRH3, and genes involved in GH/IGF axis and its downstream signaling pathways for protein and glycogen synthesis in Hulong Grouper. These findings provided molecular basis underlying growth superiority of hybrid grouper, and comprehensive insights into better understanding the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways regulating heterosis in fish.

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