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Wang H.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Li G.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Brown K.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Smith K.,National Center for Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2011

Background: Treatment for drug addiction in China can take place in mandatory detoxification centers (MDC), voluntary detoxification centers (VDC), or at outreach programs located in the community. To date little is known about HIV prevalence or associated risk factors among the current and past drug users (DU) in each setting. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at three different settings in Beijing, China; 795 subjects were enrolled at MDC, 824 at VDC, and 520 within the community. Subjects who provided informed consent took part in face-to-face interviews and provided blood samples for HIV and syphilis testing. Results: Significant differences were found across enrollment sites in terms of demographic, drug use and sexual behavior characteristics. Overall HIV sero-prevalence was 2.9%, and was particularly high in MDC (5.2% versus 1.0% in VDC and 2.3% among community drug users). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for HIV infection were 50.5 (95% CI: 19.07-133.85) for being of Yi ethnicity, 29.4 (95% CI: 15.10-57.24) for Uyghur ethnicity, 3.4 (95% CI: 1.57-7.52) for injection drug users who did not share equipment, and 18.8 (95% CI: 8.31-42.75) among injection drug users who shared injection equipment. Conclusions: The vast differences among DU in various enrollment sites in terms of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and HIV related risk profiles underscore the importance of familiarity with population characteristics and drug user environment to better inform targeted prevention programs. Prevention programs targeting DU in Chinese settings must also consider differences in ethnicities, culture, and residential status. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Ma X.,Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine | Xu H.,Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine | Shi L.,Shenzhen International Travel Health Care Center | Yang P.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: A cost-effective, accurate and rapid simultaneous multiplex assay is required for testing and diagnoses of conventional and emerging viruses in clinical virology laboratories. We developed and optimized a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) multiplex PCR assay for detecting influenza viruses including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1, H3N2, influenza B and H5N1. Methods: The optimized multiplex DPO PCR was used to detect 233 clinical human samples. The results were compared to those obtained with RT-qPCR, conventional PCR and immunochromatographic assay. Results: Specificity analysis revealed that the DPO PCR assay amplified each target virus without any cross-amplification. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the multiplex DPO-PCR sensitivity was higher than for the immunochromatographic assay and lower than for qPCR, while no significant difference was observed compared with conventional PCR, when detecting influenza A and B. Additional experiments using the same sample panel indicated no significant differences between the number of positive samples detected by multiplex DPO PCR and RT-qPCR when applying a Cq with a value lower than 30. Conclusions: The five-targeted simultaneous multiplex DPO PCR assay could be easily adopted into routine practice. This approach is cost effective with a short running time, low technical requirements for the detection of influenza virus and early diagnosis in clinical laboratories. © 2015 Ma et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Nie Y.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Liang X.-J.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Lu M.-Z.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Yu F.-W.,Zhejiang University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A | Year: 2014

The mass transfer and reaction kinetics of sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) absorption with aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions were studied in an experimental double-stirred cell. Results showed that SO2F2 absorption with NaOH was followed by a reaction model employing a fast pseudo-first-order. The second-order rate constant for SO2F2 absorption with aqueous NaOH solutions was determined to be 1.44 m3/(mols) at 298 K. Three models were used in this chemical absorption process, and in each case, the same expression of enhancement factor was obtained. A comparison was made between the experimental enhancement factor and the value calculated from the model, and the maximum relative deviation was less than 4.2%. The proposed model expression gave a reasonable fit with the experimental values, indicating that mass transfer correlations are valid for scaling up design. © Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Nie Y.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Liang X.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Ji J.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Lu M.,Zhejiang University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Engineering Science | Year: 2015

Chemical absorption was employed for the harmless treatment of sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) in the simulated residual fumigant. SO2F2 was absorbed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution in a packed column. Effects of spray density, gas flow rate, concentration of NaOH solution, and inlet SO2F2 volume concentration on SO2F2 removal efficiency were investigated at room temperature. It was found that SO2F2 could be removed completely when inlet SO2F2 volume concentration, spray density, gas flow rate, and NaOH concentration were 0.50%, 12 m3/(m2 · h), 0.12 m3/h, and 0.68 mol/L, respectively. According to the two-film theory, a mathematical model based on Onda correlations was developed to describe the removal efficiency of SO2F2. Comparison between the experimental data and the calculated data proved that the predictability of the proposed model was within the maximum deviation of 8.0%. Aqueous NaOH solution after absorption was analyzed. It was found that the SO2F2 was fixed and converted to NaF, NaSO3F, and Na2SO4. Copyright © 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Nie Y.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Zheng Q.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Liang X.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Gu D.,Shenzhen International Travel Health Care Center | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The technology of packed bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma followed by a chemical absorption has been developed and was found to be an efficient way for decomposition treatment of sulfuryl fluoride (SO 2F2) in simulated residual fumigant. The effects of energy density, initial SO2F2 concentration, and residence time on the removal efficiency of SO2F2 for the DBD plasma treatment alone were investigated. It was found that the SO2F 2 could be removed completely when initial volume concentration, energy density, and residence time were 0.5%, 33.9 kJ/L, and 5.1 s, respectively. The removal mechanism of SO2F2 in the packed bed DBD reactor was discussed. Based on the detailed analysis of SO 2F2 molecular stability and its exhaust products in the DBD plasma reactor, it was concluded that the energetic electrons generated in the packed bed DBD reactor played a key role on the removal of SO 2F2, and the major decomposition products of SO 2F2 detected were SO2, SiF4, and S (Sulfur). Among these products, SiF4 was formed by the F atom reacted with the filler-quartz glass beads (SiO2) in the packed bed DBD reactor. Aqueous NaOH solution was used as the chemical absorbent for the gaseous products of SO2F2 after plasma pretreatment. It was found that the gaseous products in the plasma exhaust could be absorbed and fixed by the subsequent aqueous NaOH solution. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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