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Dai J.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Dai J.,Shenzhen Institute of Mental Health | Zhong B.-L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Xiang Y.-T.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 5 more authors.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

Purpose: There is a dearth of data on the association of internal migration with mental health in young rural Chinese. This study aims to explore the associations between migrant status, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese.Methods: We recruited 1,646 rural subjects aged 16–34 years, of whom 756 were migrant workers and 890 non-migrants, from ten representative villages in rural Sichuan Province, the southwestern part of China. To assess subject’s depressive symptoms and general psychological quality of life (psycho-QOL), the study protocol included the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and psycho-QOL subscale of the World Health Organization’s QOL Questionnaire-Brief Version, in addition to structured questions regarding one-year suicidal thoughts and behaviors (serious ideation, plan, and attempt), socio-demographic, social support, and physical health information.Results: After adjustment for confounders, migrant workers had relative to non-migrant rural residents a decreased risk for depression (OR = 0.69, P = 0.026), but comparable risk for poor psycho-QOL (OR = 0.91, P = 0.557) and one-year suicidal behaviors (OR = 0.59–1.10, P = 0.19–0.90). Migrant status only accounted for 0.5, 2.8, 4.7, 9.8, and 12.6 % of the total explainable variance for suicide attempt, poor psycho-QOL, suicide plan, depression and serious suicide ideation, respectively.Conclusion: Our findings suggested that among young rural Chinese there were no significant associations involving migrant status and poor psycho-QOL or one-year suicidal behaviors, while migrant status significantly correlated with a decreased risk of depression. The unique contribution of migrant status to mental health among young rural Chinese participants in this study was very small. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Merikangas K.R.,National Health Research Institute | Jin R.,Harvard University | He J.-P.,National Health Research Institute | Kessler R.C.,Harvard University | And 12 more authors.
Archives of General Psychiatry

Context: There is limited information on the prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in international population-based studies using common methods. Objectives: To describe the prevalence, impact, patterns of comorbidity, and patterns of service utilization for bipolar spectrum disorder (BPS) in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Design, Setting, and Participants: Crosssectional, face-to-face, household surveys of 61 392 community adults in 11 countries in the Americas, Europe, and Asia assessed with the World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0, a fully structured, lay-administered psychiatric diagnostic interview. Main Outcome Measures: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) disorders, severity, and treatment. Results: The aggregate lifetime prevalences were 0.6% for bipolar type I disorder (BP-I), 0.4% for BP-II, 1.4% for subthreshold BP, and 2.4% for BPS. Twelve-month prevalences were 0.4% for BP-I, 0.3% for BP-II, 0.8% for subthreshold BP, and 1.5% for BPS. Severity of both manic and depressive symptoms as well as suicidal behavior increased monotonically from subthreshold BP to BP-I. By contrast, role impairment was similar across BP subtypes. Symptom severity was greater for depressive episodes than manic episodes, with approximately 74.0% of respondents with depression and 50.9% of respondents with mania reporting severe role impairment. Three-quarters of those with BPS met criteria for at least 1 other disorder, with anxiety disorders (particularly panic attacks) being the most common comorbid condition. Less than half of those with lifetime BPS received mental health treatment, particularly in low-income countries, where only 25.2% reported contact with the mental health system. Conclusions: Despite cross-site variation in the prevalence rates of BPS, the severity, impact, and patterns of comorbidity were remarkably similar internationally. The uniform increases in clinical correlates, suicidal behavior, and comorbidity across each diagnostic category provide evidence for the validity of the concept of BPS. Treatment needs for BPS are often unmet, particularly in low-income countries. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Kessler R.C.,Harvard University | Ormel J.,University of Groningen | Petukhova M.,Harvard University | McLaughlin K.A.,Harvard University | And 24 more authors.
Archives of General Psychiatry

Context: Although numerous studies have examined the role of latent variables in the structure of comorbidity among mental disorders, none has examined their role in the development of comorbidity. Objective: To study the role of latent variables in the development of comorbidity among 18 lifetime DSM-IV disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Design: Nationally or regionally representative community surveys. Setting: Fourteen countries. Participants: A total of 21 229 survey respondents. Main Outcome Measures: First onset of 18 lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders assessed retrospectively in the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results: Separate internalizing (anxiety and mood disorders) and externalizing (behavior and substance disorders) factors were found in exploratory factor analysis of lifetime disorders. Consistently significant positive time-lagged associations were found in survival analyses for virtually all temporally primary lifetime disorders predicting subsequent onset of other disorders. Within-domain (ie, internalizing or externalizing) associations were generally stronger than between-domain associations. Most time-lagged associations were explained by a model that assumed the existence of mediating latent internalizing and externalizing variables. Specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (internalizing) and hyperactivity and oppositional defiant disorders (externalizing) were the most important predictors. A small number of residual associations remained significant after controlling the latent variables. Conclusions: Thegoodfit of the latent variablemodelsuggests thatcommoncausal pathways account for most of the comorbidityamongthe disorders considered herein. These common pathways should be the focus of future research on the development of comorbidity, although several important pairwise associations that cannot be accounted for bylatentvariablesalsoexistthatwarrantfurtherfocusedstudy. © 2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Zhong B.-L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhong B.-L.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Liu T.-B.,Shenzhen Institute of Mental Health | Chiu H.F.K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 5 more authors.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

Purpose: (1) To estimate the pooled prevalence of psychological symptoms in Chinese migrant workers (CMWs), as measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) in observational studies conducted in China, and (2) to explore the potential variables associated with the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI), the overall mental health indicator of CMWs. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of the major English and Chinese databases (to June 2012). Cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies of CMWs (and controls where appropriate) that reported at least one subscale score of the SCL-90-R were included. Multilevel meta-analysis was used to pool the symptom scores of cross-sectional surveys and mean differences of symptom scores ("Cohen's d" values) between CMWs and controls of case-control studies. Multilevel meta-analysis with ecological- or study-level covariates was used to explore the associations between variables and SCL-90-R GSI score. Results: The search yielded 48 cross-sectional surveys (comprising 42,813 CMWs) and seven surveys that included control samples. The pooled psychological symptom scores (95 % confidence interval) of CMWs were statistically higher than those of norms from Chinese general population on all scales of SCL-90-R, except for obsessive-compulsive subscale in study quality subgroup analysis. CMWs also scored statistically higher than those of urban counterpart controls on all scales of SCL-90-R. Multilevel regression meta-analysis model revealed that four covariates that accounted for 33.9 % of SCL-90-R GSI heterogeneity across all surveys, including: "mean age of study sample," "geographic area," "per capita GDP," and "statutory minimum monthly wage" of study site in implementation year. Conclusion: CMWs have more severe psychological symptoms than the general population, and thus, appear to experience higher level of psychological distress. Macro-economic factors may have impact on the overall mental health of CMWs, but the factors that contribute to mental health and mental distress among CMWs remain to be explored and understood. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Kessler R.C.,Harvard University | Green J.G.,Harvard University | Gruber M.J.,Harvard University | Sampson N.A.,Harvard University | And 16 more authors.
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research

Data are reported on the background and performance of the K6 screening scale for serious mental illness (SMI) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. The K6 is a six-item scale developed to provide a brief valid screen for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV) SMI based on the criteria in the US ADAMHA Reorganization Act. Although methodological studies have documented good K6 validity in a number of countries, optimal scoring rules have never been proposed. Such rules are presented here based on analysis of K6 data in nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys in 14 countries (combined N = 41,770 respondents). Twelve-month prevalence of DSM-IV SMI was assessed with the fully-structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nested logistic regression analysis was used to generate estimates of the predicted probability of SMI for each respondent from K6 scores, taking into consideration the possibility of variable concordance as a function of respondent age, gender, education, and country. Concordance, assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was generally substantial (median 0.83; range 0.76-0.89; inter-quartile range 0.81-0.85). Based on this result, optimal scaling rules are presented for use by investigators working with the K6 scale in the countries studied. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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