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Ma S.,Southwest Jiaotong University | Zhou Q.,Shenzhen Institute of Building Research Co.
ICLEM 2012: Logistics for Sustained Economic Development - Technology and Management for Efficiency - Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference of Logistics Engineering and Management | Year: 2012

Based on China railway freight volume statistics from 1978 to 2010, this paper analyzes railway freight time series' numeral characteristic with the using of econometrics method. According to freight time series unit root test, prove that freight time series is a two-order fractional integration serial. Observing the residual of freight time series after two differences the paper got autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation, then established China railway freight volume ARIMA forecasting model. Through testing the forecasting modal, it was found that the result is satisfactory. Finally, the paper forecasts the railway freight volume of 2012 and 2013 and the precision is high. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

Qin M.,Nanjing University | Yang J.,Nanjing University | Yang J.,Shenzhen Institute of Building Research Co.
Building Simulation | Year: 2016

Building energy simulation is essential for most architectural design projects. Many models have been developed to predict the indoor air temperature and relative humidity as well as the building’s heating and cooling loads. However, in most building energy analysis the calculation of heat conduction through walls usually neglects the transport and storage of moisture in porous building materials, and the interaction between hygrothermal transfer and airflow inside the building. An accurate heat load (both sensible and latent load) determination requires a calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transfer in building envelopes and the hygrothermal interactions between the envelope and the environment. This paper evaluates the accuracy and the applicability of three thermal models in EnergyPlus (CTF—Conduction Transfer Function model, HAMT—Combined Heat and Moisture Transfer model, EMPD—Effective Moisture Penetration Depth model) for calculating moisture effects on building energy consumption in different climate conditions. The simulation results are compared with field measurements. The effects of different room infiltration rate on the accuracy of different models are also analyzed. © 2015, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Shi Y.,Nanjing University | Shi Y.,Shenzhen Institute of Building Research Co. | Sun X.,Nanjing University | Zhu X.,Nanjing University | And 2 more authors.
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2012

Peri-urban areas are sites currently experiencing the most active urbanization. In order to quantify the complexity in urban growth patterns and processes, based on the common boundary and Landscape Expansion Index (LEI) analysis, we developed six spatial rules to identify three urban growth types of infilling, edge-expansion and outlying in 2000-2008. In addition, growth density (GD) with buffer zone analysis was applied to ascertain urban movement from the city center. Results indicated the prominent urban growth type was edge-expansion, with continued urbanization most prominently in the peri-urban areas. The infilling growth increment proportion in the second study period (2004-2008) suggested the study area was experiencing an increased coalescence pattern and declined diffusion pattern. However, the highest infilling GD zones that occurred primarily near the city center did not vary significantly in 2000-2008. The intensive urban growth zones in the first study period (2000-2004) followed by later efficient infill growth also suggested urban growth was more compact in the second study period. Furthermore, two land use change maps showed that substantial arable land was lost by urban growth in 2000-2008, and the establishment of industrial parks encroached on large salt marsh in the second study period. Further research is required to delineate a suitable development management plan to sustain a baseline for urban growth. Furthermore, the integration of a zoning approach associated with the green belt is suggested to play a key role in a transition to continued urbanization. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lin Y.,Fudan University | Fotios S.,University of Sheffield | Wei M.,Pennsylvania State University | Liu Y.,Shenzhen Institute of Building Research Co. | And 2 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2015

PURPOSE. Involuntary physiological responses offer an alternative means to psychophysical procedures for objectively evaluating discomfort glare. This study examined eye movement and pupil size responses to glare discomfort using new approaches to analysis: relative pupil size and speed of eye movement.METHODS. Participants evaluated glare discomfort using the standard de Boer rating scale under various conditions manipulated to influence glare discomfort. Eye movement was recorded using an electro-oculogram (EOG), and pupil size was recorded using Tobii glasses. Ten young (mean age: 24.5 years old) and 10 senior (mean age: 61 years old) participants were recruited for this experiment.RESULTS. Subjective evaluation of glare discomfort was highly correlated with eye movement (multiple correlation coefficient [R2] of >0.94, P < 0.001) and pupil constriction (R2 ¼ 0.38, P<0.001).Severeglarediscomfortincreasedthespeedofeyemovementandcausedlarger pupil constriction. Larger variations of eye movement were found among seniors.CONCLUSIONS. The two physiological responses studied here to characterize discomfort glare under various lighting conditions had significant correlation with the subjective evaluation. The correlation between discomfort glare and physiological responses suggests an objective way to characterize and evaluate discomfort glare that may overcome the problems of conventional subjective evaluation. It also offers an explanation as to why long-term exposure to discomfort glare leads to visual fatigue and eyestrain. © 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

Zhang Y.,South China University of Technology | Liu Q.,Shenzhen Institute of Building Research Co. | Meng Q.,South China University of Technology
Building and Environment | Year: 2015

Airflow utilization is a traditional and effective way for people to improve their thermal comfort in summer in the areas of China that are hot and humid. We conducted a summer-long field study on nine naturally ventilated buildings in Guangzhou and collected airflow-related behaviors, motivations, and perceptions from 32 college students. The results show that the behaviors of opening windows and doors were driven by both indoor air quality and thermal comfort motivations. The proportions of open windows and doors increased linearly and slowly with the indoor ET*, and the acceptable range for opening windows and doors was an indoor ET* ≤30.3°C with the condition that a maximum of 0.25m/s indoor air speed needs to be achieved. The behaviors of using fans were driven by thermal comfort motivations. The proportions of use of fans increased strongly with the indoor ET*, and the acceptable range for using fans was an indoor ET* ≤31.0°C with the condition that a maximum of 0.87m/s indoor air speed needs to be achieved. A strategy for airflow utilization was proposed. Our study is believed to provide a better understanding of airflow-related behaviors, motivations, and perceptions as well as better designs of natural ventilation and fans and better simulations of performance for buildings in the hot and humid areas of China. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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