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Zhou X.-M.,Shenzhen Futian District Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital | Zhang H.,Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital | Han X.,Shenzhen Futian District Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital
Tumor Biology

Gynecorelogic cancers like ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers are among the major threats to modern life, especially to female health. Like some other types of cancers, all of these gynecological cancers have found to be associated with the developmental stage epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). More specifically, the aberrant expression of major EMT markers, such as lower expressions of E-cadherin and alpha-catenin, and overexpressions of N-cadherin, beta-catenin, vimentin, and matrix metalloproteinases, have been reported in ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers. The transcription factors, such as Twist, Snail, Slug, and Zeb, which regulate these EMT mediators, are also reported to be overexpressed in gynecological cancers. In addition to the over/lower expression, the promoter methylation of some of these genes has been identified too. In the era of target-specific cancer therapeutics, some promising studies showed that targeting EMT markers might be an interesting and successful tool in future cancer therapy. In this study, we have reviewed the recent development in the research on the association of EMT markers with three major gynecological cancers in the perspectives of carcinogenesis and therapeutics. © 2014 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM). Source

Gao X.,Capital Medical University | Xu Y.,Capital Medical University | Xu B.,Capital Medical University | Liu Y.,University of Hong Kong | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews

Background: Xanthine oxidase-derived superoxide production and oxidative stress contribute to the development of diabetic complications including diabetic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that xanthine oxidase-inhibitor allopurinol (ALP) may decrease hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, ameliorate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis, and attenuate the development of left ventricle (LV) diastolic dysfunction in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Methods: Control Sprague Dawley (C) or streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were either untreated or treated with allopurinol (100mg/kg/day) for 4weeks starting at 1week after streptozotocin injection. Free 15-F2t-isoprostane, a specific indicator of oxidative stress was measured by enzymatic immunoassay. The cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained paraffin-embedded sections of LVs. Myocardial collagens I and III were assessed by immunol histochemistry and Western blotting. Echocardiography was performed to characterize cardiac structure and function. Results: In diabetic rats, both plasma and cardiac tissue levels of free 15-F2t-isoprostane were increased (p<0.05 vs. control), accompanied with significant increase (p<0.05 vs. control) in cross-section area and myocardial collagen deposition of LV cardiomyocyte. Echocardiography in diabetic rats showed that LV weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher than in control rats, whereas the levels of LV end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were decreased (all p<0.05 diabetic vs. control). All these changes were either attenuated or prevented by allopurinol. In addition, LV ejection fraction in diabetic rats treated with allopurinol was higher than that in untreated diabetic rats (p<0.05). Conclusion: Allopurinol can attenuate hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, ameliorate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis and subsequently prevent left ventricular dysfunction in early diabetes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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