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Guo H.,Liaoning Medical University | Liu X.,Liaoning Medical University | Li C.,Shenyang Womens and Childrens Hospital | Li Y.,Liaoning Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2014

The purpose of the study is to explore the roles of leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) during the first postpartum year in the occurrence and development of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT). We retrospectively collected serum samples from 57 PPT patients consisting of 34 overt PPT (O-PPT) and 23 subclinical PPT (S-PPT) in addition to 37 healthy postpartum women at four postpartum time points, i.e., 3-day and 3, 6, 12-month postpartum. Serum leptin and IL-6 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA assay, respectively. Leptin level and leptin/BMI (LEP/BMI) ratio were higher in PPT patients than in control during the first postpartum year, but were not significantly different between O-PPT and S-PPT. However, a similar trend but did not reach significant difference in IL-6 level was observed during the postpartum period in PPT patients and control women. We conclude that a sustained high level of serum leptin after delivery may be involved in the pathogenesis of PPT. IL-6 does not contribute to the development of PPT. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Nie X.-C.,Shenyang Womens and Childrens Hospital | Dong D.-S.,Shenyang University | Bai Y.,Shenyang Medical College | Xia P.,Shenyang University
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2014

Black tea is a commonly consumed beverage in the world, comprising approximately 80% of all tea consumed. We sought to examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of breast cancer, using all available epidemiologic evidence to date. PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, and China Biological Medicine Database were used to search for citations using the MeSH terms as "breast neoplasm" AND "black tea." Then we performed a meta-analysis of studies of breast cancer risk published between 1985 and 2013 by using RevMan 5.0 software. The results showed that no association between black tea consumption and breast cancer risk in overall [odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89-1.05]. We further performed a stratified analysis according to region (United States/Europe). Black tea consumption did not decrease breast cancer risk in the United States (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) and in Europe (OR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.93-1.06). In addition, the summary OR from all cohort studies (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91-1.18) or all case-control studies (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88-1.02) showed black tea intake has no effects on breast cancer risk. However, the association between black tea consumption and breast cancer incidence remains unclear based on the current evidence. Further well-designed large studies are needed to confirm our result. © 2014 Copyright © 2014, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Ma J.,Liaoning Medical University | Wu D.,Liaoning Medical University | Li C.,Shenyang Womens and Childrens Hospital | Fan C.,Liaoning Medical University | And 8 more authors.
Medicine (United States) | Year: 2015

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common autoimmune disorders. A few studies have analyzed the association between serum vitamin D levels and AITD, and available data remain inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum vitamin D levels and 3 types of AITD, that is Graves' disease (GD), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and postpartum thyroiditis (PPT). Two independent case-control studies were designed. The first is a cross-sectional case-control study in which we examined the levels of 25(OH)D in patients with newly diagnosed GD or HT and in controls; the second is a nested case-control study in which we compared 25(OH)D levels in 610 women who developed PPT during the follow-up after delivery and those who did not. Compared with the controls, GD patients and HT patients had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels. PPT cases also had a lower serum 25(OH)D concentration than controls. Serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with neither antithyroid peroxidase antibody nor antithyroglobulin antibody in GD and HT. There was no significant relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone and 25(OH)D levels. Every 5 nmol/L increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was associated with a 1.55-, 1.62-, and 1.51-fold reduction in GD, HT, and PPT risk, respectively. We observed a lower serum vitamin D levels in AITD patients compared with controls. The lower the vitamin D level is, not vitamin D deficiency per se, the higher the risk for developing AITD will be. However, vitamin D does not have strong association with the titers of thyroid antibodies or the levels of thyroid hormones. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Zhao Y.,Liaoning Medical University | Miao W.,Liaoning Medical University | Li C.,Shenyang Womens and Childrens Hospital | Yu X.,Liaoning Medical University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background &Aims:To explore vitamin D status and its dynamic changes during pregnancy in women living in Northeast China. The association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone was studied. Because vitamin D deficiency or thyroid dysfunction/autoimmunity during pregnancy may lead to similar adverse events, the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and thyroid parameters was investigated. Methods:Serum samples of 50 women (aged 22 to 36 years) were selected retrospectively. The samples were collected at gestational 8 weeks 63 days, 20 weeks 63 days and 32 weeks 63 days for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and thyroid parameters. Results:The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 28.29, 39.23 and 40.03 nmol/L, respectively, from the first to the third trimester. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration during the first trimester was significantly lower than the next two trimesters (p<0.01) and was unchanged between the second and the third trimester. Of these women, 96%, 78% and 76% showed 25-hydroxyvitamin D #50 nmol/L during each trimester. Season was associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D during each trimester (p,0.05), and a significant association was found between calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D during the first and the second trimesters. Only triiodothyronine was associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the first trimester (p = 0.024), but statistical significance was only a trend (p = 0.063) after excluding abnormal values. No association was observed between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and other thyroid parameters. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy was prevalent in women from Northeast China who did not use supplementation. No significant relationships were observed between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and thyroid parameters during pregnancy. © 2014 Zhao et al. Source


Shi X.,Endocrine Institute | Han C.,Endocrine Institute | Li C.,Endocrine Institute | Mao J.,Endocrine Institute | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Context: The WHO Technical Consultation recommends urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) from 250 to 499 μg/L as more-than-adequate iodine intake and UIC ≥500 μg/L as excessive iodine for pregnant and lactating women, but scientific evidence for this is weak. Objective: We investigated optimal and safe ranges of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region of China. Method: Seven thousand one hundred ninety pregnant women at 4-8 weeks gestation were investigated and their UIC, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroidperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured. Results: The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was lowest in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L, which corresponded to the lowest serum Tg concentration (10.18 μg/L). Prevalences of subclinical hypothyroidism (2.4%) and isolated hypothyroxinemia (1.7%) were lower in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that more-than-adequate iodine intake (UIC 250-499 μg/L) and excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 500 μg/L) were associated with a 1.72-fold and a 2.17-fold increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Meanwhile, excessive iodine intake was associated with a 2.85-fold increased risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia. Moreover, the prevalence of TPOAb positivity and TgAb positivity presented a U-shaped curve, ranging from mild iodine deficiency to iodine excess. Conclusion: The upper limit of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region should not exceed UIC 250μg/L, because this is associated with a significantly high risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, and a UIC of 500μg/L should not be exceeded, as it is associated with a significantly high risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia. Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Source

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