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Dong G.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wang J.,Washington University in St. Louis | Zeng X.-W.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen L.,James Madison University | And 7 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Background: Little information exists regarding the effect of interaction of obesity and long-term air pollution exposure on children's blood pressure and hypertension in areas with high levels of air pollution. The aim of this study is to assess effect modification by obesity on the association between exposure and blood pressure in Chinese children. Methods: We studied 9,354 Chinese children, ages 5-17 years old, from 24 elementary schools and 24 middle schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities during 2012-2013. Four-year average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, and ozone (O3) were measured at the monitoring stations in the 24 districts. We used generalized additive models and two-level logistic regression models to examine the health effects. Results: Consistent interactions were found between exposure and obesity on blood pressure and hypertension. The association between exposure and hypertension was consistently larger for overweight/obese children than for children with normal-weight, with odds ratios for hypertension ranging from 1.16 per 46.3μg/m3 for O3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 1.20) to 2.91 per 30.6μg/m3 for PM10 (95% CI = 2.32, 3.64), and estimated increases in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure ranging from 0.57 mmHg (95% CI = 0.36, 0.78) and 0.63 mmHg (95% CI = 0.46, 0.81) per 46.3 μg/m3 for O3 to 4.04 mmHg (95% CI = 3.00, 5.09) and 2.02 mmHg (95% CI = 1.14, 2.89) per 23.4 μg/m3 for sulfur dioxide. Conclusions: Obesity amplifies the association of long-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure and hypertension in Chinese children. Source

Ma Y.-N.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang J.,Washington University in St. Louis | Lee Y.L.,National Taiwan University | Ren W.-H.,Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center | And 2 more authors.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings | Year: 2015

Background: Many studies have shown the relationship between serum Club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16) and respiratory diseases. However, little research has been done to study urinary CC16 in relation to respiratory diseases. Our objective was to examine the association of urinary CC16 and physician-diagnosed asthma or lung function measurements in Chinese children. Methods: A total of 147 physician-diagnosed children with asthma, ages 9-15 years, were recruited from our cross-sectional study population in northeast China. The 390 healthy children who were not asthmatic and not smokers were selected at random from the population according to 10% proportional sampling. Lung function values, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were measured with two portable spirometers. Urine CC16 was determined by using an enzyme-link immunoassay kit. The relationships between urine CC16 levels and asthma, lung function were assessed by multiple regression models. Results: The geometric mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) creatinine-adjusted urine CC16 level was, for creatinine, 9.77 ng/mg (95% CI, 8.12-12.02 ng/mg). After adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, and smoking status, lower urine CC16 levels were found to be associated with asthma (odds ratio 0.782 [95% CI, 0.617- 0.990]). A positive association was found between urine CC16 and forced vital capacity (beta 0.064 [95% CI, 0.008-0.119]). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated lower levels of urine CC16 and lung function in patients with asthma than in those patients without asthma. CC16 in urine may be a useful tool or biomarker for investigating lung epithelium integrity among children with asthma or lung injury. Copyright © 2015, OceanSide Publications, Inc., U.S.A. Source

Dong G.-H.,Liaoning Medical University | Qian Z.M.,Saint Louis University | Xaverius P.K.,Saint Louis University | Trevathan E.,Saint Louis University | And 11 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2013

Several studies have investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollutants in the development of high blood pressure and hypertension. However, little information exists regarding the health effects of long-term exposure. To investigate the association between residential long-term exposure to air pollution and blood pressure and hypertension, we studied 24 845 Chinese adults in 11 districts of 3 northeastern cities from 2009 to 2010. Three-year average concentration of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2), and ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in the 11 districts. We used generalized additive models and 2-level logistic regressions models to examine the health effects. The results showed that the odds ratio for hypertension increased by 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.16) per 19 μg/m3 increase in PM10, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.18) per 20 μg/m3 increase in SO2, and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.06-1.20) per 22 μg/m3 increase in O3. The estimated increases in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 0.87 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.48-1.27) and 0.32 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.08-0.56) per 19 μg/m 3 interquartile increase in PM10, 0.80 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.46-1.14) and 0.31 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.10-0.51) per 20 μg/m3 interquartile increase in SO2, and 0.73 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.35-1.11) and 0.37 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.14-0.61) per 22 μg/m3 interquartile increase in O3. These associations were only statistically significant in men. In conclusion, long-term exposure to PM10, SO2, and O3 was associated with increased arterial blood pressure and hypertension in the study population. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Dong G.-H.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang D.,Liaoning Medical University | Yang Z.-H.,Liaoning Medical University | Zhang P.-F.,Liaoning Medical University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Health Research | Year: 2011

To assess the interaction of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and allergic predisposition regarding respiratory health among Chinese children, a sample of 23,474 children (6-13 years old) was studied from 25 districts in Liaoning province, China. The results showed that children without allergic predisposition were more susceptible to ETS than children with allergic predisposition. Among children without allergic predisposition, ETS exposure was associated with more respiratory symptoms and diseases in boys than in girls; In utero ETS exposure was associated with history of asthma (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.44-2.40) and current asthma (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48-3.44) only among boys without allergic predisposition. Among children with allergic predisposition, more associations between ETS exposure and respiratory symptoms and diseases were detected in girls. In conclusion, ETS exposure was more evident in boys without family atopy history and more associations were detected in girls with family atopy history. © 2011 Taylor &Francis. Source

Yang T.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Yang T.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Wang X.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Wang Z.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere | Year: 2012

Haze exerts a large effect on visibility reduction and has serious impacts on air quality and human health. Understanding the sources and transport of haze is of importance to improve the regional air quality and evaluate its health effects. In this study, we investigated a typical haze episode that occurred in northeast (NE) China during 4-6 November 2010 by analyzing the ground PM10 measurements from 11 monitoring sites, aerosol Lidar observations, synoptic charts, MODIS satellite imageries, and back trajectories. Our analyses suggest that the regional haze formed in the North China Plain (NCP) under stagnant conditions can be transported to NE China in ~1-3 days across Bohai Bay and Liaodong Bay - a typical transport pathway associated with the topography of northern China. The haze episode appeared to evolve progressively from southwest to northeast in the region of NE China, in agreement with the appearance of PM10 peak values, wind patterns, MODIS images and the back trajectories of air masses. Due to the haze impact, NE China showed significantly elevated particulate matter pollution by a factor of ~4-6 with the peak concentrations reaching ~410 μg m-3. The results together indicate that the regional transport from the NCP has a significant contribution to the PM pollution in NE China, thus efforts to control the source emissions over the NCP would be effective to improve the air quality in NE China. © 2012, the Meteorological Society of Japan. Source

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