Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center

Shenyang, China

Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center

Shenyang, China
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Ma Y.-N.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang J.,Washington University in St. Louis | Lee Y.L.,National Taiwan University | Ren W.-H.,Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center | And 2 more authors.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings | Year: 2015

Background: Many studies have shown the relationship between serum Club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16) and respiratory diseases. However, little research has been done to study urinary CC16 in relation to respiratory diseases. Our objective was to examine the association of urinary CC16 and physician-diagnosed asthma or lung function measurements in Chinese children. Methods: A total of 147 physician-diagnosed children with asthma, ages 9-15 years, were recruited from our cross-sectional study population in northeast China. The 390 healthy children who were not asthmatic and not smokers were selected at random from the population according to 10% proportional sampling. Lung function values, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were measured with two portable spirometers. Urine CC16 was determined by using an enzyme-link immunoassay kit. The relationships between urine CC16 levels and asthma, lung function were assessed by multiple regression models. Results: The geometric mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) creatinine-adjusted urine CC16 level was, for creatinine, 9.77 ng/mg (95% CI, 8.12-12.02 ng/mg). After adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, and smoking status, lower urine CC16 levels were found to be associated with asthma (odds ratio 0.782 [95% CI, 0.617- 0.990]). A positive association was found between urine CC16 and forced vital capacity (beta 0.064 [95% CI, 0.008-0.119]). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated lower levels of urine CC16 and lung function in patients with asthma than in those patients without asthma. CC16 in urine may be a useful tool or biomarker for investigating lung epithelium integrity among children with asthma or lung injury. Copyright © 2015, OceanSide Publications, Inc., U.S.A.


Yang T.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Yang T.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Wang X.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Wang Z.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere | Year: 2012

Haze exerts a large effect on visibility reduction and has serious impacts on air quality and human health. Understanding the sources and transport of haze is of importance to improve the regional air quality and evaluate its health effects. In this study, we investigated a typical haze episode that occurred in northeast (NE) China during 4-6 November 2010 by analyzing the ground PM10 measurements from 11 monitoring sites, aerosol Lidar observations, synoptic charts, MODIS satellite imageries, and back trajectories. Our analyses suggest that the regional haze formed in the North China Plain (NCP) under stagnant conditions can be transported to NE China in ~1-3 days across Bohai Bay and Liaodong Bay - a typical transport pathway associated with the topography of northern China. The haze episode appeared to evolve progressively from southwest to northeast in the region of NE China, in agreement with the appearance of PM10 peak values, wind patterns, MODIS images and the back trajectories of air masses. Due to the haze impact, NE China showed significantly elevated particulate matter pollution by a factor of ~4-6 with the peak concentrations reaching ~410 μg m-3. The results together indicate that the regional transport from the NCP has a significant contribution to the PM pollution in NE China, thus efforts to control the source emissions over the NCP would be effective to improve the air quality in NE China. © 2012, the Meteorological Society of Japan.


Dong G.-H.,Liaoning Medical University | Qian Z.M.,Saint Louis University | Xaverius P.K.,Saint Louis University | Trevathan E.,Saint Louis University | And 11 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2013

Several studies have investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollutants in the development of high blood pressure and hypertension. However, little information exists regarding the health effects of long-term exposure. To investigate the association between residential long-term exposure to air pollution and blood pressure and hypertension, we studied 24 845 Chinese adults in 11 districts of 3 northeastern cities from 2009 to 2010. Three-year average concentration of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2), and ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in the 11 districts. We used generalized additive models and 2-level logistic regressions models to examine the health effects. The results showed that the odds ratio for hypertension increased by 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.16) per 19 μg/m3 increase in PM10, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.18) per 20 μg/m3 increase in SO2, and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.06-1.20) per 22 μg/m3 increase in O3. The estimated increases in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 0.87 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.48-1.27) and 0.32 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.08-0.56) per 19 μg/m 3 interquartile increase in PM10, 0.80 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.46-1.14) and 0.31 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.10-0.51) per 20 μg/m3 interquartile increase in SO2, and 0.73 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.35-1.11) and 0.37 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.14-0.61) per 22 μg/m3 interquartile increase in O3. These associations were only statistically significant in men. In conclusion, long-term exposure to PM10, SO2, and O3 was associated with increased arterial blood pressure and hypertension in the study population. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Dong G.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Wang J.,Washington University in St. Louis | Zeng X.-W.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen L.,James Madison University | And 7 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Background: Little information exists regarding the effect of interaction of obesity and long-term air pollution exposure on children's blood pressure and hypertension in areas with high levels of air pollution. The aim of this study is to assess effect modification by obesity on the association between exposure and blood pressure in Chinese children. Methods: We studied 9,354 Chinese children, ages 5-17 years old, from 24 elementary schools and 24 middle schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities during 2012-2013. Four-year average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, and ozone (O3) were measured at the monitoring stations in the 24 districts. We used generalized additive models and two-level logistic regression models to examine the health effects. Results: Consistent interactions were found between exposure and obesity on blood pressure and hypertension. The association between exposure and hypertension was consistently larger for overweight/obese children than for children with normal-weight, with odds ratios for hypertension ranging from 1.16 per 46.3μg/m3 for O3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 1.20) to 2.91 per 30.6μg/m3 for PM10 (95% CI = 2.32, 3.64), and estimated increases in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure ranging from 0.57 mmHg (95% CI = 0.36, 0.78) and 0.63 mmHg (95% CI = 0.46, 0.81) per 46.3 μg/m3 for O3 to 4.04 mmHg (95% CI = 3.00, 5.09) and 2.02 mmHg (95% CI = 1.14, 2.89) per 23.4 μg/m3 for sulfur dioxide. Conclusions: Obesity amplifies the association of long-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure and hypertension in Chinese children.


Dong G.-H.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang D.,Liaoning Medical University | Yang Z.-H.,Liaoning Medical University | Zhang P.-F.,Liaoning Medical University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Health Research | Year: 2011

To assess the interaction of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and allergic predisposition regarding respiratory health among Chinese children, a sample of 23,474 children (6-13 years old) was studied from 25 districts in Liaoning province, China. The results showed that children without allergic predisposition were more susceptible to ETS than children with allergic predisposition. Among children without allergic predisposition, ETS exposure was associated with more respiratory symptoms and diseases in boys than in girls; In utero ETS exposure was associated with history of asthma (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.44-2.40) and current asthma (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48-3.44) only among boys without allergic predisposition. Among children with allergic predisposition, more associations between ETS exposure and respiratory symptoms and diseases were detected in girls. In conclusion, ETS exposure was more evident in boys without family atopy history and more associations were detected in girls with family atopy history. © 2011 Taylor &Francis.


Dong G.-H.,Liaoning Medical University | Chen T.,Shenyang | Liu M.-M.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang D.,Liaoning Medical University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Males and females exhibit different health responses to air pollution, but little is known about how exposure to air pollution affects juvenile respiratory health after analysis stratified by allergic predisposition. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between air pollutants and asthmatic symptoms in Chinese children selected from multiple sites in a heavily industrialized province of China, and investigate whether allergic predisposition modifies this relationship. Methodology/Principal Findings: 30139 Chinese children aged 3-to-12 years were selected from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China in 2009. Information on respiratory health was obtained using a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Routine air-pollution monitoring data was used for particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2), ozone (O 3) and carbon monoxide (CO). A two-stage regression approach was applied in data analyses. The effect estimates were presented as odds ratios (ORs) per interquartile changes for PM 10, SO 2, NO 2, O 3, and CO. The results showed that children with allergic predisposition were more susceptible to air pollutants than children without allergic predisposition. Amongst children without an allergic predisposition, air pollution effects on asthma were stronger in males compared to females; Current asthma prevalence was related to PM 10 (ORs = 1.36 per 31 μg/m 3; 95% CI, 1.08-1.72), SO 2 (ORs = 1.38 per 21 μg/m 3; 95%CI, 1.12-1.69) only among males. However, among children with allergic predisposition, more positively associations between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and diseases were detected in females; An increased prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was significantly associated with SO 2 (ORs = 1.48 per 21 μg/m 3; 95%CI, 1.21-1.80), NO 2 (ORs = 1.26 per 10 μg/m 3; 95%CI, 1.01-1.56), and current asthma with O 3 (ORs = 1.55 per 23 μg/m 3; 95%CI, 1.18-2.04) only among females. Conclusion/Significance: Ambient air pollutions were more evident in males without an allergic predisposition and more associations were detected in females with allergic predisposition. © 2011 Dong et al.


Liu M.-M.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang D.,Liaoning Medical University | Zhao Y.,Liaoning Medical University | Liu Y.-Q.,Liaoning Medical University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Background: Concentrations of ambient air pollution and pollutants in China have changed considerably during the last decade. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of current ambient air pollution on the health of kindergarten children. Methods: We studied 6730 Chinese children (age, 3-7 years) from 50 kindergartens in 7 cities of Northeast China in 2009. Parents or guardians completed questionnaires that asked about the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and risk factors. Three-year concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter =10μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) were calculated at monitoring stations in 25 study districts. A 2-stage regression approach was used in data analyses. Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher among children living near a busy road, those living near chimneys or a factory, those having a coal-burning device, those living with smokers, and those living in a home that had been recently renovated. Among girls, PM10 was associated with persistent cough (odds ratio [OR]PM10 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.77), persistent phlegm (ORPM10 = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81), and wheezing (ORPM10 = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65). NO2 concentration was associated with increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.27-3.02) among girls. In contrast, associations of respiratory symptoms with concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were not statistically significant among boys. Conclusions: Air pollution is particularly important in the development of respiratory morbidity among children. Girls may be more susceptible than boys to air pollution. © 2013 Japan Epidemiological Association.


Dong G.H.,Shenyang University | Dong G.H.,Saint Louis University | Qian Z.,Saint Louis University | Liu M.-M.,Shenyang University | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2013

Objective:Experimental data suggest that obesity enhances the effects of ambient air pollutants on exacerbation of asthma; however, there is little supporting epidemiological evidence. The aim of present study is to evaluate whether obesity modifies the association between ambient air pollution and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children.Methods:In Northeast China, 30 056 children aged 2-14 years were selected from 25 districts of seven cities. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illness, and associated risk factors. Overweight and obesity were calculated with an age and sex-specific body mass index (BMI, kg m-2), with BMIs of greater than the 85th and 95th percentiles defining overweight and obesity, respectively. Average annual ambient exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2) and ozone (O3) was estimated from data collected at monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts.Results:We observed consistent and significant interactions between exposure and obesity on respiratory symptoms and asthma. The associations between each pollutant's yearly concentrations and respiratory symptoms and asthma were consistently larger for overweight/obese children than for normal-weight children, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.17 per 31 μg m-3 for PM 10 on wheeze (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.36) to 1.50 per 10 μg m-3 for NO2 on phlegm (95% CI: 1.21, 1.87) and cough (95% CI: 1.24, 1.81).Conclusion:These results showed that overweight/obesity enhanced respiratory health effects of air pollution in the study children. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Dong G.-H.,Liaoning Medical University | Qian Z.,Saint Louis University | Liu M.-M.,Liaoning Medical University | Wang D.,Liaoning Medical University | And 8 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding and air pollution are both important factors for respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. Few studies have examined possible interaction between them on respiratory outcomes. METHODS: We studied 31,049 Chinese children, ages 2-14 years old, from 25 elementary schools and 50 kindergartens in the Seven Northeastern Cities during 2008-2009. Parents or guardians completed questionnaires about the children's histories of respiratory conditions, risk factors, and feeding methods. Three-year average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, and ozone were calculated from monitoring stations in 25 study districts. We used two-level logistic regressions to examine the effects of exposure, controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Association of air pollution with childhood respiratory conditions was modified by breastfeeding. Compared with children who had been breastfed, those who were not exhibited consistently stronger effects of air pollution. Among non-breastfed children, odds ratios (ORs) per 10 μg/m increase in nitrogen dioxide were 1.40 (95% confidence interval = 1.19-1.64) for cough, 1.41 (1.16-1.71) for phlegm, 1.17 (1.00-1.36) for current wheeze, and 1.25 (1.07-1.46) for doctor-diagnosed asthma. For breastfed children, the ORs were 1.25 (1.09-1.43) for cough, 1.15 (0.99-1.34) for phlegm, 0.97 (0.87-1.08) for current wheeze, and 1.17 (1.05-1.32) for doctor-diagnosed asthma. Breastfeeding was more protective among younger children. Breastfeeding was also associated with reduced effects of passive smoke exposure in children. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding is associated with smaller associations between air pollution and respiratory conditions in children, suggesting that breastfeeding reduces susceptibility to the respiratory effects of pollutants. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


PubMed | Saint Louis University, Sun Yat Sen University, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center and Queensland University of Technology
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2015

Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China.We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25-29.9 and 30 kg/m(2), respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates.We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15-1.47 for stroke, 1.33-1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22-1.35 for stroke, 1.07-1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98-1.01 for stroke, 0.93-1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women.Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality of BMI relative to exposure and onset of disease.

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