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University Center, VA, United States

Shenandoah University is a comprehensive private university located in Winchester, Virginia in the United States. It has an enrollment of approximately 3,800 students across more than ninety programs in six schools: College of Arts & science, Harry F. Byrd, Jr. School of Business, Shenandoah Conservatory, Bernard J. Wikipedia.

Newton D.W.,Shenandoah University
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding | Year: 2011

This article reviews pharmaceutical and health implications of the nonenzymatic Maillard reaction, also referred to as browning or N-glycation. The spontaneous Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amines was first reported by French scientist Louis Maillard in 1912; the Maillard reaction may also occur with other drugs. Hemoglobin A 1c and chemically complex colored products that follow initial dextrose and amino acids adducts in parenteral nutrition solutions are the advanced Maillard products most familiar to pharmacists. Source

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding the pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical implications of the use of dabigatran in severe renal impairment for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE (2000-April 2012) and the Cochrane Database (2000-April 2012) were conducted. Key search terms included dabigatran, renal impairment, renal failure, and renal dysfunction. Additional limits included articles written in English and those involving human subjects. Bibliographic reviews were conducted to identify other pertinent data. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Primary data were considered eligible for inclusion if they were from studies that evaluated the PKs of dabigatran in renal impairment or the effect of renal impairment on the risk for major bleeding with dabigatran. DATA SYNTHESIS: Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor indicated for the prevention of stroke and systemic thromboembolism in patients with nonvalvular AF, at a dose of 150 mg twice daily. Renal elimination is responsible for approximately 80% of dabigatran's clearance; thus, dose adjustment is required for patients with severe renal impairment. The approved dosing regimen for patients with creatinine clearance 15-30 mL/min (75 mg twice daily) was derived from PK modeling studies, limiting its applicability to the clinical setting. CONCLUSIONS: At this time, there is limited evidence to support safety or efficacy outcomes with the use of dabigatran for stroke prevention in patients with severe renal impairment and nonvalvular AF. Postmarketing data and large clinical trials are needed to determine the role of dabigatran in this population. Source

Zimmermann L.K.,Shenandoah University
Chronobiology International | Year: 2011

Social synchronizers of morningness-eveningness, or chronotype, begin to change during the developmental transition from adolescence to college life. The current study examined how these changes related to the sleep/wake patterns of 220 undergraduates (93 males/122 females) ranging in age from 18 to 29 yrs at a private university. Coping strategies students used to deal with early morning commitments and familial conflict over sleep patterns were also examined. Results revealed that evening chronotypes were more likely to report conflict with parents in junior high school and high school over going to bed and waking, followed by a shift to a later sleep/wake pattern in college. They also reported adjusting their schedules and using more coping strategies to accommodate their evening bias. Morning chronotypes, whose routines easily fit a conventional morning schedule, reported little change in schedules and sleep patterns from junior high school to college, and used fewer coping strategies in response to early morning commitments. The shift in social zeitgebers from junior high school to college are significant, and yet little research has examined the effect these changes can have on students' adjustment to college life and the role that chronotype plays in this process. Because students' ability to cope with these changes will ultimately influence how successful they are in their various endeavors, a greater understanding of how chronotype is related to adaptive functioning across this developmental period is needed. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Snyder B.J.,University of South Carolina | Fry W.R.,Shenandoah University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

Recent research suggests that humans have some ability to selectively activate or relax some muscles during isometric or dynamic muscle actions without changing posture or position. This study sought to reveal whether trained athletes could isolate either the pectoral or triceps muscles, respectively, at different intensities when given verbal technique instruction. Eleven male Division III football players performed 3 sets of bench press at 50% 1-repetition max (1RM) and 80% 1RM while electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), and triceps brachii (TB). In the first set, the subjects performed the exercise without instruction. In the second set, the subjects were given verbal instructions to use only chest muscles. In the third set, the subjects were instructed to use only triceps muscles. Mean normalized root mean square EMG activity was calculated during 3 repetitions in each condition. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to detect differences from the preinstruction condition, with significance set to p ≤ 0.017 as indicated by a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. During the 50% max lift with verbal instructions to focus on chest muscles, PM EMG activity increased by 22% over preinstruction activity (p = 0.005), whereas AD and TB activities were statistically unchanged. When the subjects were instructed to focus on only the triceps muscles, PM returned to baseline activity, whereas TB activity was increased by 26% (p = 0.005). When the lift was increased to 80% max, PM and AD activities were both increased with verbal instructions to use only chest muscles. The TB activity was unchanged during the 80% lifts, regardless of instructions. In conclusion, it is found that verbal technique instruction is effective in shifting muscle activity during a basic lift, but it may be less effective at higher intensities. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Yavuz M.,Shenandoah University
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2010

This paper is concerned with a generalised version of the production smoothing problem. The problem involves both usage and loading goals at multiple levels. Three existing heuristic approaches, namely the one-stage (1SH), two-stage (2SH) and earliest-due-date (EDD) heuristics are adapted, as well as a novel iterated beam search (IBS) algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. An extensive computational study is designed in the paper and used to compare the four heuristic approaches. The results show that IBS finds the best solution in the majority of test instances and requires less computation time than 2SH. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

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