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Tew G.,Sheffield Hallam University | Copeland R.,Sheffield Hallam University | Le Faucheur A.,IFEPSA | Gernigon M.,University of Angers | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2013

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to assess if self-reported measures of walking limitation correlate better with a community-based assessment of maximum walking distance (MWD) than they do with laboratory-based tests in patients with intermittent claudication. A secondary aim was to examine the effect of prior objective testing on these correlations. Methods: Thirty-one patients completed three self-report tools (self-reported MWD; Walking Impairment Questionnaire [WIQ]; Estimation of Ambulatory Capacity by History-Questionnaire [EACH-Q]) immediately before and approximately 1 week after a series of objective tests (incremental treadmill walking test, 6-minute walk test, 1-hour global positioning system [GPS] recording of a community walk). We analyzed the feasibility of the self-report tools in terms of number of errors and their correlation (r) with objective measures. Results: The correlations of self-report tests to GPS-MWD (range,.579-.808) were consistently higher than with the treadmill test (range,.310-.584) and 6-minute walk test (range,.414-.613). The WIQ had the highest proportion of errors, both at first and second completion (58% and 42%, respectively), compared with self-reported MWD (23% and 13%, respectively) and the EACH-Q (6.5% and 13%, respectively). Correlations were improved with the second set of self-report tests (range,.310-.595 to .414-.808). Conclusions: The fact that all self-report tools correlated better with a community-based measure of MWD using GPS than with laboratory results confirms that they measure what they aim to: community-based MWD. In addition, prescription of a community walk might help patients to better estimate their walking limitation.Copyright © 2013 by the Society for Vascular Surgery. Source


Parry G.D.,University of Sheffield | Cooper C.L.,University of Sheffield | Moore J.M.,University of Sheffield | Yadegarfar G.,University of Sheffield | And 5 more authors.
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: High levels of asthma-related fear and panic exacerbate asthma symptoms and complicate the management of asthma. Asthma-specific fear may be reduced by a cognitive behavioural intervention. We aimed to test if there is a reduction in asthma-specific fear after cognitive behavioural intervention compared with routine treatment. Methods: Adults with asthma registered with family doctors in Sheffield UK were screened for anxiety and 94 highly anxious patients were randomly allocated to receive either a cognitive behavioural intervention to improve self-management of their anxiety (n = 50) or routine clinical care (n = 44). Asthma-specific fear at the end of treatment and at six month follow up were the primary endpoints. Service usage in the six months prior to and six months following the intervention was monitored to allow estimation of costs. Data were analysed by intention to treat. Findings: At the end of treatment, there was a significantly greater reduction in asthma-specific fear for people in the CBT group compared with controls. At six months after treatment the reduction in asthma-specific fear in the CBT group was increased and the difference between treatment and control group was statistically significant. Service use costs were not reduced in the CBT group. Interpretation: A brief cognitive behavioural intervention was found to have efficacy in reducing asthma-specific panic fear immediately after treatment and at 6 months follow up. There was no cost advantage to cognitive behavioural treatment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Evans K.E.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Leeds J.S.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Morley S.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital | Sanders D.S.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2010

Background Celiac disease is associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We previously reported that in 30% (20/66) of adult celiac patients with current or persistent diarrhea the underlying cause was exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Of these 20 patients, 19 initially improved on pancreatic supplementation. To date, there are no published longitudinal studies. Methods The 20 patients who had initially received therapy for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency were prospectively followed-up for 4 years. Gastrointestinal symptoms, dietary adherence, celiac antibody status, and dose of enzyme supplementation were recorded. Fecal elastase-1 (Fel-1) was repeated to reassess exocrine pancreatic function. Results In the study, 19/20 patients were reviewed, as one had died (mean age 59.7 years, 7 males). The mean duration of celiac disease was 13.2 years. Eleven out of nineteen were still taking enzyme supplementation at a mean dose of 45,000 units of lipase per day. Only 1/11 reported no symptomatic benefit and 8/19 patients had discontinued supplementation because their diarrhea had improved. In the whole group there was a significant increase in Fel-1 levels over time, with median values of 90 μg/g at 0 months, 212 μg/g at 6 months, and 365 μg/g at followup (45-66 months)(p < 0.0001). Conclusions Fecal elastase-1 is useful in identifying exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in adult celiac patients with diarrhea. Our longitudinal data suggests that pancreatic enzyme supplementation could be discontinued in a substantial proportion of patients as symptoms improve. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source


Swift A.J.,University of Sheffield | Swift A.J.,National Health Research Institute | Rajaram S.,University of Sheffield | Hurdman J.,Sheffield Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit | And 14 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2013

Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a composite numerical model based on parameters from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for noninvasive estimation of the key hemodynamic measurements made at right heart catheterization (RHC). Background Diagnosis and assessment of disease severity in patients with pulmonary hypertension is reliant on hemodynamic measurements at RHC. A robust noninvasive approach that can estimate key RHC measurements is desirable. Methods A derivation cohort of 64 successive, unselected, treatment naive patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension from the ASPIRE (Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary Hypertension Identified at a Referral Centre) Registry, underwent RHC and CMR within 12 h. Predicted mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was derived using multivariate regression analysis of CMR measurements. The model was tested in an independent prospective validation cohort of 64 patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. Surrogate measures of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and cardiac output (CO) were estimated by left atrial volumetry and pulmonary arterial phase contrast imaging, respectively. Noninvasive pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was calculated from the CMR-derived measurements, defined as: (CMR-predicted mPAP - CMR-predicted PCWP)/CMR phase contrast CO. Results The following composite statistical model of mPAP was derived: CMR-predicted mPAP = -4.6 + (interventricular septal angle × 0.23) + (ventricular mass index × 16.3). In the validation cohort a strong correlation between mPAP and MR estimated mPAP was demonstrated (R2 = 0.67). For detection of the presence of pulmonary hypertension the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 (0.92 to 1.00; p < 0.0001). CMR-estimated PVR reliably identified invasive PVR ≥3 Wood units (WU) with a high degree of accuracy, the area under the ROC curve was 0.94 (0.88 to 0.99; p < 0.0001). Conclusions CMR imaging can accurately estimate mean pulmonary artery pressure in patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension and calculate PVR by estimating all major pulmonary hemodynamic metrics measured at RHC. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Rajaram S.,University of Sheffield | Swift A.J.,University of Sheffield | Swift A.J.,National Health Research Institute | Capener D.,University of Sheffield | And 12 more authors.
Radiology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 1.5-T noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lung parenchyma and to compare it with computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of interstitial lung disease and other morphologic lung abnormalities. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for retrospective image analysis. A total of 236 patients who underwent MR imaging and CT as part of their assessment for suspected pulmonary hypertension were included in this study. Lung MR imaging was performed with a 1.5-T system as a stack of axial two-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) acquisitions. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT and MR images for various morphologic abnormalities, such as pulmonary fibrosis, pleural and mediastinal disease, solid lesions, bronchial disease, and emphysema. κ statistics were used to measure interobserver agreement. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging in the identification of pulmonary fibrosis (n = 46) were 89% (95% confidence interval: 77%, 96%) and 91% (95% confidence interval: 76%, 98%), respectively, when compared with CT. In comparison to CT, MR imaging depicted 75% of ground-glass opacities. Nine of the 12 noncalcified nodules were identified on MR images. Lung nodules (75%, κ = 0.71) and effusions (100%, κ = 0.89) were also well visualized on MR images. MR imaging was however less effective in depicting emphysema (16%, κ = 0.60) and minor fibrosis (67%, κ = 0.79). Conclusion: This study shows bSSFP MR imaging is inferior to CT in imaging parenchymal lung disease; however, this study does demonstrate for the first time a potential role for the bSSFP sequence as an alternative radiation-free noncontrast imaging modality for use in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. © RSNA, 2012. Source

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