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Tew G.,Sheffield Hallam University | Copeland R.,Sheffield Hallam University | Le Faucheur A.,IFEPSA | Gernigon M.,University of Angers | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2013

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to assess if self-reported measures of walking limitation correlate better with a community-based assessment of maximum walking distance (MWD) than they do with laboratory-based tests in patients with intermittent claudication. A secondary aim was to examine the effect of prior objective testing on these correlations. Methods: Thirty-one patients completed three self-report tools (self-reported MWD; Walking Impairment Questionnaire [WIQ]; Estimation of Ambulatory Capacity by History-Questionnaire [EACH-Q]) immediately before and approximately 1 week after a series of objective tests (incremental treadmill walking test, 6-minute walk test, 1-hour global positioning system [GPS] recording of a community walk). We analyzed the feasibility of the self-report tools in terms of number of errors and their correlation (r) with objective measures. Results: The correlations of self-report tests to GPS-MWD (range,.579-.808) were consistently higher than with the treadmill test (range,.310-.584) and 6-minute walk test (range,.414-.613). The WIQ had the highest proportion of errors, both at first and second completion (58% and 42%, respectively), compared with self-reported MWD (23% and 13%, respectively) and the EACH-Q (6.5% and 13%, respectively). Correlations were improved with the second set of self-report tests (range,.310-.595 to .414-.808). Conclusions: The fact that all self-report tools correlated better with a community-based measure of MWD using GPS than with laboratory results confirms that they measure what they aim to: community-based MWD. In addition, prescription of a community walk might help patients to better estimate their walking limitation.Copyright © 2013 by the Society for Vascular Surgery.


Swift A.J.,University of Sheffield | Swift A.J.,National Health Research Institute | Rajaram S.,University of Sheffield | Hurdman J.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital | And 14 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2013

Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a composite numerical model based on parameters from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for noninvasive estimation of the key hemodynamic measurements made at right heart catheterization (RHC). Background Diagnosis and assessment of disease severity in patients with pulmonary hypertension is reliant on hemodynamic measurements at RHC. A robust noninvasive approach that can estimate key RHC measurements is desirable. Methods A derivation cohort of 64 successive, unselected, treatment naive patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension from the ASPIRE (Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary Hypertension Identified at a Referral Centre) Registry, underwent RHC and CMR within 12 h. Predicted mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was derived using multivariate regression analysis of CMR measurements. The model was tested in an independent prospective validation cohort of 64 patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. Surrogate measures of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and cardiac output (CO) were estimated by left atrial volumetry and pulmonary arterial phase contrast imaging, respectively. Noninvasive pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was calculated from the CMR-derived measurements, defined as: (CMR-predicted mPAP - CMR-predicted PCWP)/CMR phase contrast CO. Results The following composite statistical model of mPAP was derived: CMR-predicted mPAP = -4.6 + (interventricular septal angle × 0.23) + (ventricular mass index × 16.3). In the validation cohort a strong correlation between mPAP and MR estimated mPAP was demonstrated (R2 = 0.67). For detection of the presence of pulmonary hypertension the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 (0.92 to 1.00; p < 0.0001). CMR-estimated PVR reliably identified invasive PVR ≥3 Wood units (WU) with a high degree of accuracy, the area under the ROC curve was 0.94 (0.88 to 0.99; p < 0.0001). Conclusions CMR imaging can accurately estimate mean pulmonary artery pressure in patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension and calculate PVR by estimating all major pulmonary hemodynamic metrics measured at RHC. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Parry G.D.,University of Sheffield | Cooper C.L.,University of Sheffield | Moore J.M.,University of Sheffield | Yadegarfar G.,University of Sheffield | And 5 more authors.
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: High levels of asthma-related fear and panic exacerbate asthma symptoms and complicate the management of asthma. Asthma-specific fear may be reduced by a cognitive behavioural intervention. We aimed to test if there is a reduction in asthma-specific fear after cognitive behavioural intervention compared with routine treatment. Methods: Adults with asthma registered with family doctors in Sheffield UK were screened for anxiety and 94 highly anxious patients were randomly allocated to receive either a cognitive behavioural intervention to improve self-management of their anxiety (n = 50) or routine clinical care (n = 44). Asthma-specific fear at the end of treatment and at six month follow up were the primary endpoints. Service usage in the six months prior to and six months following the intervention was monitored to allow estimation of costs. Data were analysed by intention to treat. Findings: At the end of treatment, there was a significantly greater reduction in asthma-specific fear for people in the CBT group compared with controls. At six months after treatment the reduction in asthma-specific fear in the CBT group was increased and the difference between treatment and control group was statistically significant. Service use costs were not reduced in the CBT group. Interpretation: A brief cognitive behavioural intervention was found to have efficacy in reducing asthma-specific panic fear immediately after treatment and at 6 months follow up. There was no cost advantage to cognitive behavioural treatment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Evans K.E.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Aziz I.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Cross S.S.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital | Sahota G.R.K.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Objectives: Recent reports suggest that the duodenal bulb may be the only site to demonstrate villous atrophy (VA) in celiac disease. However, there is a paucity of data from newly diagnosed adult celiac patients and no data from those patients with established celiac disease. The objective of this study was to compare the histological findings in the duodenal bulb and distal duodenum of patients with adult celiac disease (newly diagnosed or established) against controls. Methods: A total of 461 patients were prospectively recruited. Biopsies were graded using the Marsh criteria. Results: In all, 461 patients (300 females and 161 males) with median age 51 years were analyzed. In all, 126 had newly diagnosed celiac disease, 85 established celiac disease, and 250 controls. New diagnosis celiac disease (9%, P<0.0001) and established celiac disease (14%, P<0.0001) were more likely than controls to have VA in the bulb alone. Overall, when comparing the histological lesion of the bulb against the distal duodenum, 31/85 with established celiac disease (P<0.0001) and 21/126 newly diagnosed (P=0.0067) had a discrepancy in the severity of the lesion between the two sites compared with 18/250 controls. In all, 24/31 with established celiac disease and 16/21 newly diagnosed had the more severe lesion in the bulb. Conclusions: VA may be present only in the duodenal bulb. This study suggests that the optimal assessment of patients in whom celiac disease is suspected (with positive serology) and those with established celiac disease requires a duodenal bulb biopsy in addition to distal duodenal biopsies. © 2011 by the American College of Gastroenterology.


Cutinha P.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Venugopal S.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Salim F.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust
Surgery (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

Genitourinary trauma occurs in about 10-20% of multiply injured patients and occurs in conjunction with other life-threatening injuries that require immediate attention. Initial assessment should include securing the airway, controlling external bleeding and resuscitation of shock. In many cases the patient is attended by a team where examination and resuscitation is carried out simultaneously. Recognition of genitourinary trauma with appropriate investigations is necessary to select patients for immediate intervention or conservative measures. We discuss the assessment and management of these patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Swift A.J.,University of Sheffield | Swift A.J.,National Institutes of Health Research | Rajaram S.,University of Sheffield | Condliffe R.,National Institutes of Health Research | And 9 more authors.
Investigative Radiology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use of magnetic resonance imaging measurements related to pulmonary artery stiffness in the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension (PH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 134 patients with suspected PH underwent right heart catheterization (RHC) and magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5-T scanner within 2 days. Phase contrast imaging at the pulmonary artery trunk and cine cardiac views were acquired. Pulmonary artery area change (AC), relative AC (RAC), compliance (AC/pulse pressure from RHC), distensibility (RAC/pulse pressure from RHC), right ventricular functional indices, and right ventricular mass were all derived. Regression curve fitting identified the statistical model of best fit between RHC measurements and pulmonary artery stiffness indices. The diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of noninvasive AC and RAC were also assessed. RESULTS: The relationship between pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery RAC was best reflected by an inverse linear model. Patients with mild elevation in pulmonary vascular resistance (<4 Woods units) demonstrated reduced RAC (P = 0.02) and increased right ventricular mass index (P < 0.0001) without significant loss of right ventricular function (P = 0.17). At follow-up of 0 to 40 months, 18 patients with PH had died (16%). Analysis of Kaplan-Meier plots showed that both AC and RAC predicted mortality (log-rank test, P = 0.046 and P = 0.012, respectively). Area change and RAC were also predictors of mortality using univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (P = 0.046 and P = 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive assessment of pulmonary artery RAC is a marker sensitive to early increased vascular resistance in PH and is a predictor of adverse outcome. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


Codina C.,University of Sheffield | Pascalis O.,Pierre Mendès-France University | Mody C.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Toomey P.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The altered sensory experience of profound early onset deafness provokes sometimes large scale neural reorganisations. In particular, auditory-visual cross-modal plasticity occurs, wherein redundant auditory cortex becomes recruited to vision. However, the effect of human deafness on neural structures involved in visual processing prior to the visual cortex has never been investigated, either in humans or animals. We investigated neural changes at the retina and optic nerve head in profoundly deaf (N = 14) and hearing (N = 15) adults using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), an in-vivo light interference method of quantifying retinal micro-structure. We compared retinal changes with behavioural results from the same deaf and hearing adults, measuring sensitivity in the peripheral visual field using Goldmann perimetry. Deaf adults had significantly larger neural rim areas, within the optic nerve head in comparison to hearing controls suggesting greater retinal ganglion cell number. Deaf adults also demonstrated significantly larger visual field areas (indicating greater peripheral sensitivity) than controls. Furthermore, neural rim area was significantly correlated with visual field area in both deaf and hearing adults. Deaf adults also showed a significantly different pattern of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) distribution compared to controls. Significant correlations between the depth of the RNFL at the inferior-nasal peripapillary retina and the corresponding far temporal and superior temporal visual field areas (sensitivity) were found. Our results show that cross-modal plasticity after early onset deafness may not be limited to the sensory cortices, noting specific retinal adaptations in early onset deaf adults which are significantly correlated with peripheral vision sensitivity. © 2011 Codina et al.


Evans K.E.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Leeds J.S.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Morley S.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital | Sanders D.S.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2010

Background Celiac disease is associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We previously reported that in 30% (20/66) of adult celiac patients with current or persistent diarrhea the underlying cause was exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Of these 20 patients, 19 initially improved on pancreatic supplementation. To date, there are no published longitudinal studies. Methods The 20 patients who had initially received therapy for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency were prospectively followed-up for 4 years. Gastrointestinal symptoms, dietary adherence, celiac antibody status, and dose of enzyme supplementation were recorded. Fecal elastase-1 (Fel-1) was repeated to reassess exocrine pancreatic function. Results In the study, 19/20 patients were reviewed, as one had died (mean age 59.7 years, 7 males). The mean duration of celiac disease was 13.2 years. Eleven out of nineteen were still taking enzyme supplementation at a mean dose of 45,000 units of lipase per day. Only 1/11 reported no symptomatic benefit and 8/19 patients had discontinued supplementation because their diarrhea had improved. In the whole group there was a significant increase in Fel-1 levels over time, with median values of 90 μg/g at 0 months, 212 μg/g at 6 months, and 365 μg/g at followup (45-66 months)(p < 0.0001). Conclusions Fecal elastase-1 is useful in identifying exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in adult celiac patients with diarrhea. Our longitudinal data suggests that pancreatic enzyme supplementation could be discontinued in a substantial proportion of patients as symptoms improve. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.


Rajaram S.,University of Sheffield | Rajaram S.,Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust | Swift A.J.,University of Sheffield | Capener D.,University of Sheffield | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Objective. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening complication of connective tissue diseases (CTD). Our aim was to compare the diagnostic utility of noninvasive imaging modalities, i.e., magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and echocardiography, in evaluation of these patients. Methods. In total, 81 consecutive patients with CTD and suspected PH underwent cardiac MRI, CT, and right heart catheterization (RHC) within 48 hours. Functional cardiac MRI variables [ventricle areas and ratios, delayed myocardial enhancement, position of the interventricular septum, right ventricular mass, ventricular mass index (VMI), and pulmonary artery distensibility] were all evaluated. The pulmonary artery size, pulmonary artery/aortic ratio (PA/Ao), left and right ventricular (RV) diameter ratio, RV wall thickness, and grade of tricuspid regurgitation were measured on CT. Tricuspid gradient (TG) and size of the RV were assessed using echocardiography. Results. In our study of 81 patients with CTD, 55 had PAH, 22 had no PH, and 4 had PH owing to left heart disease. There was good correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) measured by RHC and VMI derived from MRI (mPAP, r = 0.69, p < 0.001; PVR, r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and systolic area ratio (mPAP, r = 0.69, p < 0.001; PVR, r = 0.68, p < 0.001) and TG derived from echocardiography (mPAP, r = 0.84, p < 0.001; PVR, r = 0.76, p < 0.001). In contrast, CT measures showed only moderate correlation. MRI and echocardiography each performed better as a diagnostic test for PAH than CT-derived measures: VMI ≥ 0.45 had a sensitivity of 85% and specificity 82%; and TG ≥ 40 mm Hg had a sensitivity of 86% and specificity 82%. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed the MRI measurements were better at predicting mortality. Patients with RV end diastolic volume < 135 ml had a better prognosis than those with a value > 135 ml, with a 1-year survival of 95% versus 66%, respectively. Conclusion. In patients with CTD and suspected PAH, cardiac MRI and echocardiography have greater diagnostic utility than CT in the assessment of patients with suspected PAH, and MRI has prognostic value. The Journal of Rheumatology. Copyright © 2012. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust, Royal Free Hospital and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery
Type: | Journal: Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2016

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health problem. It renders the central nervous system susceptible to infectious and noninfectious diseases. HIV-positive individuals may present to neurosurgical services with brain lesions of unknown etiology. The differential diagnosis in these cases is broad, including opportunistic infections and malignancies, and investigation should be tailored accordingly. Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system can be complicated by hydrocephalus, and the management is pathogen dependent. Patients may also present to a neurosurgical service with conditions unrelated to their HIV status. This review outlines important conditions that cause brain lesions and hydrocephalus. It addresses the issues of diagnosis and intervention in HIV-positive patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, while not ignoring the potential for opportunistic central nervous system infection in undiagnosed patients. The care of HIV-positive patients presenting to neurosurgical services requires a multidisciplinary approach, which is reflected in the authorship of this review, as well as in the guidance given.

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