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Rodin S.,Matrix | Antonsson L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Niaudet C.,Karolinska Institutet | Simonson O.E.,Karolinska University Hospital | And 22 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Lack of robust methods for establishment and expansion of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells still hampers development of cell therapy. Laminins (LN) are a family of highly cell-type specific basement membrane proteins important for cell adhesion, differentiation, migration and phenotype stability. Here we produce and isolate a human recombinant LN-521 isoform and develop a cell culture matrix containing LN-521 and E-cadherin, which both localize to stem cell niches in vivo. This matrix allows clonal derivation, clonal survival and long-term self-renewal of hES cells under completely chemically defined and xeno-free conditions without ROCK inhibitors. Neither LN-521 nor E-cadherin alone enable clonal survival of hES cells. The LN-521/E-cadherin matrix allows hES cell line derivation from blastocyst inner cell mass and single blastomere cells without a need to destroy the embryo. This method can facilitate the generation of hES cell lines for development of different cell types for regenerative medicine purposes. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Amps K.,University of Sheffield | Andrews P.W.,University of Sheffield | Anyfantis G.,North East England Stem Cell Institute at Life | Armstrong L.,North East England Stem Cell Institute at Life | And 141 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The International Stem Cell Initiative analyzed 125 human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and 11 induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines, from 38 laboratories worldwide, for genetic changes occurring during culture. Most lines were analyzed at an early and late passage. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed that they included representatives of most major ethnic groups. Most lines remained karyotypically normal, but there was a progressive tendency to acquire changes on prolonged culture, commonly affecting chromosomes 1, 12, 17 and 20. DNA methylation patterns changed haphazardly with no link to time in culture. Structural variants, determined from the SNP arrays, also appeared sporadically. No common variants related to culture were observed on chromosomes 1, 12 and 17, but a minimal amplicon in chromosome 20q11.21, including three genes expressed in human ES cells, ID1, BCL2L1 and HM13, occurred in >20% of the lines. Of these genes, BCL2L1 is a strong candidate for driving culture adaptation of ES cells. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Avery S.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Avery S.,Fishawack Communications GmbH | Hirst A.J.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Hirst A.J.,University of Sheffield | And 12 more authors.
Stem Cell Reports | Year: 2013

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) regularly acquire nonrandom genomic aberrations during culture, raising concerns about their safe therapeutic application. The International Stem Cell Initiative identified a copy number variant (CNV) amplification of chromosome 20q11.21 in 25% of hESC lines displaying a normal karyotype. By comparing four cell lines paired for the presence or absence of this CNV, we show that those containing this amplicon have higher population doubling rates, attributable to enhanced cell survival through resistance to apoptosis. Of the three genes encoded within the minimal amplicon and expressed in hESCs, only overexpression of BCL2L1 (BCL-XL isoform) provides control cells with growth characteristics similar to those of CNV-containing cells, whereas inhibition of BCL-XL suppresses the growth advantage of CNV cells, establishing BCL2L1 as a driver mutation. Amplification of the 20q11.21 region is also detectable in human embryonal carcinoma cell lines and some teratocarcinomas, linking this mutation with malignant transformation. © 2013 The Authors.


Narva E.,Åbo Akademi University | Autio R.,Åbo Akademi University | Autio R.,Tampere University of Technology | Rahkonen N.,Åbo Akademi University | And 20 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Prolonged culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can lead to adaptation and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities, underscoring the need for rigorous genetic analysis of these cells. Here we report the highest-resolution study of hESCs to date using an Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array containing 906,600 probes for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 946,000 probes for copy number variations (CNVs). Analysis of 17 different hESC lines maintained in different laboratories identified 843 CNVs of 50 kb-3 Mb in size. We identified, on average, 24% of the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) sites and 66% of the CNVs changed in culture between early and late passages of the same lines. Thirty percent of the genes detected within CNV sites had altered expression compared to samples with normal copy number states, of which 44% were functionally linked to cancer. Furthermore, LOH of the q arm of chromosome 16, which has not been observed previously in hESCs, was detected. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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