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Sheffield, United Kingdom

Broomhead T.,University of Sheffield | Baker S.R.,University of Sheffield | Jones K.,Public Health England | Richardson A.,Sheffield City Council | Marshman Z.,University of Sheffield
Community Dental Health

Objective: To find the most accurate indicators of the distribution of dental caries in 5-year-olds in the city of Sheffield, UK, using a conceptual framework based on the social determinants of health. Method: A list of structural and intermediary indicators was compiled based on the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health's (CSDH) conceptual framework. To quantify these indicators, existing data on dental caries were obtained from the NHS Dental Epidemiology Programme, while data on social position, education, employment, income, material circumstances, social cohesion, psychosocial factors and individual behaviours were obtained from the Public Health Intelligence Team at Sheffield City Council. These data were mapped onto a simplified framework of the social determinants of dental caries. Regression analysis was conducted on this simplified framework to determine the amount of variance each indicator contributed to the distribution of dental caries at neighbourhood level. Results: The total score for the 2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation contributed a significant amount of variance (60.4%) compared to the combined variance of the other 13 indicators (70.5%). Conclusion: The total IMD score has the potential to be used as an indicator for the targeting of oral health improvement programmes where survey data are not available. A large prospective study is required in the UK to investigate the full range of factors in the CSDH model to develop a new index which might better predict dental caries experience than IMD. © BASCD 2014. Source

Parrott R.,Sheffield City Council
Tizard Learning Disability Review

Purpose - There are major pressures on social care funding for people with learning disabilities. It is unsustainable to continue working in the same way. The need to promote independence and prevent the need for social care for people with a learning disability is urgent. The purpose of this paper is to highlight key issues, stimulate debate and strengthen the evidence base. Design/methodology/approach - The paper takes evidence from research, literature reviews, statistics and policy debates. It illustrates key points with case studies. The argument for change has been developed in discussion with key stakeholders including the chief executive of a leading self-advocacy organisation. Findings - Demand is increasing whilst funding is reducing. Policy, practice and evidence on prevention of the need for social care for people with a learning disability are underdeveloped. Nevertheless, there are many examples of good practice, and of emerging opportunities for local partnerships to work together to build a new approach. Research limitations/implications - Research on the benefits and costs of prevention of social care for people with a learning disability is underdeveloped. There is a need to extend the evidence base on the range of interventions and their effectiveness. Originality/value - The paper argues for a step change in culture, practice and the focus of research. Copyright © 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Parrott R.,Sheffield City Council
Tizard Learning Disability Review

Purpose - This paper seeks to provide a commentary on the previous paper in this issue, "Ten years of partnership". Design/methodology/approach - The commentary reviews practical experience of supporting the participation of people with learning disabilities as active citizens, especially in the context of Learning Disability Partnership Boards. Findings - While there is no cause for complacency, there are many examples of good practice. Most Boards now successfully include people with learning disabilities in the delivery of Valuing People at a local level. Originality/value - The commentary argues for purposeful, continuous improvement and suggests that this requires local leadership, investment of time, energy and effort and building systematically on success. © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EURO-6-2015 | Award Amount: 3.63M | Year: 2016

A seamless interaction with the public administration (PA) is crucial to make the daily activities of companies and citizens more effective and efficient, saving time and money in the management of administrative processes. In particular, online public services have an enormous potential for reducing the administrative burden of companies and citizens, as well as for creating saving opportunities for the PA. This potential is however far from being fully exploited. Online services made available by the PA typically rely on standardized processes, copied from their offline counterparts and designed only from the public sector organizations own perspective. This results in online services that fail to adapt to the specific needs of citizens and companies. With SIMPATICO, we address the issues above by proposing a novel approach for the delivery of personalized online services that, combining emerging technologies for language processing and machine learning with the wisdom of the crowd, makes interactions with the PA easier, more efficient and more effective. SIMPATICO combines top-down knowledge of the PA with bottom-up contributions coming from the community. These contributions can be of different types, ranging from the qualified expertise of civil servants and professionals to problems and doubts raised by citizens and companies that find online services difficult to use. Our approach is able to take into account both explicit information sources coming from citizens, professionals and civil servants, and implicit ones, extracted from user logs and past user interactions. SIMPATICOs learning by doing approach will use this information and match it with user profiles to continuously adapt and improve interactions with the public services. All the collected information on public services and procedures will be made available within Citizenpedia, a collective knowledge database released as a new public domain resource.

Finney K.N.,University of Sheffield | Sharifi V.N.,University of Sheffield | Swithenbank J.,University of Sheffield | Nolan A.,Sheffield City Council | And 2 more authors.
Energy Conversion and Management

District heating can provide cost-effective and low-carbon energy to local populations, such as space heating in winter and year-round hot/cold water; this is also associated with electricity generation in combined-heat-and-power systems. Although this is currently rare in the UK, many legislative policies, including the Renewable Heat Incentive, aim to increase the amount of energy from such sources; including new installations, as well as extending/upgrading existing distributed energy schemes. Sheffield already has an award-winning district energy network, incorporating city-wide heat distribution. This paper aimed to demonstrate the opportunities for expansions to this through geographical information systems software modelling for an in-depth analysis of the heat demands in the city. 'Heat maps' were produced, locating existing and emerging heat sources and sinks. Heat loads (industrial, commercial, educational, health care, council and leisure facilities/complex) total 53 MW, with existing residential areas accounting for ∼1500 MW and new housing developments potentially adding a further 35 MW in the future. A number of current and emerging heat sources were also discovered - potential suppliers of thermal energy to the above-defined heat sinks. From these, six 'heat zones' where an expansion to the existing network could be possible were identified and the infrastructure planned for each development. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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