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Onyenekwe P.C.,Nasarawa State University | Erhabor G.O.,Nasarawa State University | Akande S.A.,Sheda Science and Technology Complex
Natural Product Research | Year: 2016

Pito and burukutu are indigenous alcoholic beverages in Nigeria, and are fermentation products of Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum vulgare. The production is similar to that of beer, which involves steeping, malting, mashing and fermenting. A total of 30 volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography. These compounds can be broadly grouped into alkanols, phenols, acids, esters, ketones and aldehydes. Although few acids are present, they are dominant (30.887% and 27.669%) and followed by esters (26.467% and 27.442%) in pito and burukutu, respectively. Alkanols constitute the next dominant group after acids and esters; however, ethanol was not identified as a constituent. The health and social implication of the constituents are explained. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Aremu M.O.,Nasarawa State University | Ozonyia G.N.,Raw Materials Research and Development Council RMRDC | Ikokoh P.P.,Sheda Science and Technology Complex
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The quality of raw water normally varies from one site to another, depending on the source of water, its contact with air and environment. Water sample collected from nine sampling points of three different sources (wells, boreholes and streams) within Kubwa in Bwari Area Council, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria were analyzed for some physicochemical parameters and metal concentrations by using standard analytical techniques. The physicochemical parameters determined were: temperature, pH, turbidity, BOD, DO 2, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, conductivity, total hardness, NO 3 - and Cl - while that of metals were: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Ni. High spatial variations in the concentrations of the physicochemical parameters and metals were recorded while NO 3 - and Cd were not detected in any of the water samples. Generally, the physicochemical properties of the water samples analyzed were within the required standard limits set by WHO/EU except for Pb and Fe, however source protection is proposed for these waters for the benefit of mankind.

Ayegba C.O.,Sheda Science and Technology Complex | Aderemi B.O.,Ahmadu Bello University | Mohammed-Dabo I.A.,Ahmadu Bello University
Biofuels | Year: 2016

Most commercial processes for making biodiesel use batch processes. Typical reaction time ranges from 20 minutes to more than an hour. However, batch reactors are generally not suitable in the production of large-capacity chemicals. Production of biodiesel using a cosolvent such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) requires a rather short reaction time. The result is a fast reaction, in the order of 5–10 minutes. In this work, the production of cotton seed oil methyl ester (CSOME) was carried out in a tubular reactor using THF as cosolvent, while potassium hydroxide (KOH) served as catalyst. The feed was pre-mixed in a feed tank and pumped into the reactor using fuel pump at various flow rates. The yield of CSOME increased from 93.3% for a residence time of six minutes to 99.5% for a residence time of 14 minutes. The reaction was carried out at room temperature with methanol/oil ratio of 6:1 and methanol/THF volume ratio 1:1. The variance of product flow rate, kinematic viscosity and specific gravity was determined to ensure biodiesel quality consistency. Fuel properties such as flash point, cetane number, and kinematic viscosity were determined and compared with ASTM standards. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

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