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Leor J.,Tamman Cardiovascular Research Institute | Leor J.,Tel Aviv University | Leor J.,Sheba Center for Regenerative Medicine | Palevski D.,Tamman Cardiovascular Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2016

One of the most ambitious goals in modern cardiology is to regenerate the injured myocardium. The human myocardium has poor regenerative power. Thus, significant myocardial injury results in irreversible damage, scar formation, remodeling, and dysfunction. The search for therapies that will improve myocardial regeneration needs a better understanding of the mechanisms of repair and regeneration. While the role of macrophages in inflammation, scar formation, and fibrosis are well defined, their role in myocardial regeneration is less clear. Recent reports have suggested that cardiac macrophages regulate myocardial regeneration in neonatal mice. The present review aims to describe the latest discoveries about the possible role of macrophages in myocardial regeneration. We discuss the promises and difficulties to translate the latest findings into new therapies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Madonna R.,University of Chieti Pescara | Madonna R.,Texas Heart Institute | Van Laake L.W.,University Utrecht | Davidson S.M.,University College London | And 18 more authors.
European Heart Journal | Year: 2016

Despite improvements in modern cardiovascular therapy, the morbidity and mortality of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) remain significant in Europe and worldwide. Patients with IHD may benefit from therapies that would accelerate natural processes of postnatal collateral vessel formation and/or muscle regeneration. Here, we discuss the use of cells in the context of heart repair, and the most relevant results and current limitations from clinical trials using cell-based therapies to treat IHD and HF. We identify and discuss promising potential new therapeutic strategies that include ex vivo cell-mediated gene therapy, the use of biomaterials and cell-free therapies aimed at increasing the success rates of therapy for IHD and HF. The overall aim of this Position Paper of the ESC Working Group Cellular Biology of the Heart is to provide recommendations on how to improve the therapeutic application of cell-based therapies for cardiac regeneration and repair. © The Author 2016.

Pleniceanu O.,Pediatric Stem Cell Research Institute | Pleniceanu O.,Sheba Center for Regenerative Medicine | Pleniceanu O.,Tel Aviv University | Harari-Steinberg O.,Pediatric Stem Cell Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2010

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is defined as the inability of the kidneys to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood. ESRD progresses from earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and occurs when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is below 15 ml/minute/1.73 m2. CKD and ESRD are dramatically rising due to increasing aging population, population demographics, and the growing rate of diabetes and hypertension. Identification of multipotential stem/progenitor populations in mammalian tissues is important for therapeutic applications and for understanding developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Progenitor populations are ideal targets for gene therapy, cell transplantation, and tissue engineering. The demand for kidney progenitors is increasing due to severe shortage of donor organs. Because dialysis and transplantation are currently the only successful therapies for ESRD, cell therapy offers an alternative approach for kidney diseases. However, this approach may be relevant only in earlier stages of CKD, when kidney function and histology are still preserved, allowing for the integration of cells and/or for their paracrine effects, but not when small and fibrotic end-stage kidneys develop. Although blood- and bone marrow-derived stem cells hold a therapeutic promise, they are devoid of nephrogenic potential, emphasizing the need to seek kidney stem cells beyond known extrarenal sources. Moreover, controversies regarding the existence of a true adult kidney stem cell highlight the importance of studying cell-based therapies using pluripotent cells, progenitor cells from fetal kidney, or dedifferentiated/reprogrammed adult kidney cells. © AlphaMed Press.

Ben-Mordechai T.,Tel Aviv University | Ben-Mordechai T.,Tamman Cardiovascular Research Institute | Ben-Mordechai T.,Sheba Center for Regenerative Medicine | Palevski D.,Tel Aviv University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Macrophages are involved in every cardiovascular disease and are an attractive therapeutic target. Macrophage activation is complex and can be either beneficial or deleterious, depending upon its mode of action, its timing, and its duration. An important macrophage characteristic is its plasticity, which enables it to switch from one subset to another. Macrophages, which regulate healing and repair after myocardial infarction, have become a major target for both treatment and diagnosis (theranostic). The aim of the present review is to describe the recent discoveries related to targeting and modulating of macrophage function to improve infarct repair.We will briefly review macrophage polarization, plasticity, heterogeneity, their role in infarct repair, regeneration, and cross talk with mesenchymal cells. Particularly, we will focus on the potential of macrophage targeting in situ by liposomes. The ability to modulate macrophage function could delineate pathways to reactivate the endogenous programs of myocardial regeneration. This will eventually lead to development of small molecules or biologics to enhance the endogenous programs of regeneration and repair. © The Author(s) 2014.

Buzhor E.,Pediatric Stem Cell Research Institute | Buzhor E.,Sheba Center for Regenerative Medicine | Buzhor E.,Tel Aviv University | Harari-Steinberg O.,Pediatric Stem Cell Research Institute | And 15 more authors.
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2011

Cell-based approaches utilizing autologous human renal cells require their isolation, expansion in vitro, and reintroduction back into the host for renal tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, human kidney epithelial cells (hKEpCs) lose their phenotype, dedifferentiate, and assume the appearance of fibroblasts after relatively few passages in culture. We hypothesized that growth conditions may influence hKEpC phenotype and function. hKEpCs retrieved from human nephrectomy tissue samples showed the ability to reproducibly form kidney spheres when grown in suspension culture developed in nonadherent conditions. Genetic labeling and time-lapse microscopy indicated, at least in part, the aggregation of hKEpCs into 3D spheroids rather than formation of pure clonally expanded spheres. Characterization of hKEpC spheroids by real-time polymerase chain reaction and FACS analysis showed upregulation of some renal developmental and "stemness" markers compared with monolayer and mostly an EpCAM +CD24+CD133+CD44+ spheroid cell phenotype. Oligonucleotide microarrays, which were used to identify global transcriptional changes accompanying spheroid formation, showed predominantly upregulation of cell matrix/cell contact molecules and cellular biogenesis processes and downregulation of cell cycle, growth, and locomotion. Accordingly, hKEpC spheroids slowly proliferated as indicated by low Ki-67 staining, but when grafted in low cell numbers onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo, they exclusively reconstituted various renal tubular epithelia. Moreover, efficient generation of kidney spheroids was observed after long-term monolayer culture resulting in reestablishment of tubulogenic capacity upon CAM grafting. Thus, generation of a tubular organoid in hKEpC spheroids may provide a functional benefit for kidney-derived cells in vivo. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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