MIMS, India
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Reddy R.,National Institute of Epidemiology | Parasadini G.,Directorate of Health and Family Welfare | Rao P.,Directorate of Health and Family Welfare | Uthappa C.K.,SHARE India | Murhekar M.V.,National Institute of Epidemiology
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2012

Introduction: In August 2011, Chittoor district authorities reported a cluster of suspected human anthrax cases to the Andhra Pradesh state surveillance unit. We investigated this cluster to confirm its etiology, describe its magnitude, identify potential risk factors, and make recommendations for preventing similar outbreaks in the future. Methodology: Suspected cutaneous anthrax was defined as a painless skin lesion (papule, vesicle, or eschar) that appeared in a resident of Musalimadugu between July and August 2011. Clinical details and smears from skin lesions from suspected cases were collected to describe the outbreak by time, place and person. A retrospective cohort study among villagers aged ≥ 15 years was conducted to identify risk factors for acquiring the infection. Results: Sixteen livestock in the village died between 24 June and 7 August 2011. Smears from five animals showed Gram-positive, spore bearing characteristics of Bacillus anthracis. Villagers butchered and skinned the dead animals, sold the skin, and consumed the meat after boiling it for two hours. The outbreak in humans started on 30 July, and nine suspected cases of cutaneous anthrax (attack rate: 2%, no deaths) occurred until 7 August. The attack rate was higher among those aged ≥15 years. All the smears were negative on Gram staining. Individuals, who had handled, skinned, and slaughtered dead livestock were at higher risk of infection. Conclusions: We recommend ciprofloxacin prophylaxis to close family contacts. Vaccination of the livestock in the area and community education on the dangers of handling and slaughtering dead/ill livestock are necessary. © 2012 Reddy et al.


Allam R.R.,National Institute of Epidemiology | Murhekar M.V.,National Institute of Epidemiology | Bhatnagar T.,National Institute of Epidemiology | Uthappa C.K.,SHARE India | And 4 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Background: The national antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiative in India began in 2004. In order to better inform the national program, we estimated the mean cumulative survival probability and loss to follow-up (LFU) rate among patients initiated on ART. Methods: We identified a cohort of people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged =15 years initiated on ART in two ART centres in Hyderabad city, Andhra Pradesh state, India between January 2008 and December 2008. The cohort was followed-up until 31 December 2011 and death and/or LFU were the primary endpoints. Death from any cause during the study period was considered to be the result of HIV infection. We used the Kaplan-Meier estimation method for survival probability and Cox proportional hazard model to identify the predictors. Results: Of the 1690 patients initiated on ART, 259 (15.3%) were transferred out during the study period. Mortality rate was 7.6/100 person-years. Male gender, low CD4 count, history of tuberculosis before initiation of ART, and weight <48 kg were the predictors of mortality. Patients who were LFU were more likely to be males, unemployed, widowed, and had weight below 48 kg. Conclusion: Survival rates on ART were higher compared to other resource-limited settings. Delayed diagnosis and initiation of ARTand co-infection with TB were important predictors for both mortality and retention in care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.


PubMed | SHARE India, National Institute of Epidemiology and National AIDS Control Organization
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2015

Failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in high morbidity and mortality. We identified the predictors of immunological failure and suboptimal CD4 testing among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) initiated on first-line ART.The cohort of PLHIV aged 15 years initiated on first-line ART in Hyderabad city, Andhra Pradesh state, in 2008 was followed-up until 31 December 2011 or until death and/or lost to follow-up (LFU). We estimated cumulative incidence of immunological failure. We explored socio-demographic, clinical, pharmacological and immunological factors to identify the predictors of immunological failure and determinants of suboptimal CD4 testing (<2 tests/year).Among the 1431 PLHIV, 275 (19.2%) died and 263 (18.4%) were LFU. Of the remaining 893 (62.3%) patients on follow-up, 193 (21.6%) experienced immunological failure; these patients were more likely to be males, illiterate, with a history of pulmonary TB while on ART and taking stavudine-based regimen. Incidence of suboptimal testing ranged between 41 and 60% over 4 years of follow-up. Suboptimal CD4 testing among PLHIV was associated with history of TB prior to initiation of ART and stage 3 and 4 of HIV disease at enrollment.There was low immunological failure rate but high incidence of suboptimal CD4 testing. The ART centre staff needs to be more vigilant about 6-monthly CD4 testing for timely detection of immunological failure and appropriate case management.


PubMed | Directorate of Health, SHARE India and National Institute of Epidemiology
Type: | Journal: Journal of health, population, and nutrition | Year: 2016

Cholera continues to remain endemic in over 50 countries and has caused large epidemics with around 3-5 million cases occurring every year in Asia alone. In India, cholera is endemic in many states. However, etiological information and age-specific incidence related to cholera outbreaks is limited. In November 2013, district authorities reported a cluster of diarrheal disease among residents of Medipally to the state surveillance unit. We investigated this cluster to confirm its etiology, describe its magnitude, identify potential risk factors, and make recommendations for control.A house-to-house active search was conducted to identify cases of acute diarrhea and collect information on drinking water source. Drinking water samples were collected from common water sources and sampled households to test for bacteriological quality. Ten stool samples were collected for culture. A matched case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors. A total of 138 case-patients of diarrhea (Attack rate: 11.5/100;15 1,200) and 1 death (Case Fatality Ratio: 0.72/100) were identified. Five of the 10 stool samples were culture positive for V. cholerae, serogroup O1 El Tor. Drinking water from the overhead tank [Adjusted OR (AOR): 31.94, 95% CI: 7.3-139.5] was associated with risk of developing illness.This outbreak affected nearly 11% of the village population and was due to contamination of the main drinking water source. Outbreaks such as this can be prevented by constructing the drain away from the water pipelines and by monitoring regular chlorination of drinking water source and inspection of pipelines for damage.


Schneider J.A.,University of Chicago | Dandona R.,Public Health Foundation of India | Pasupneti S.,University of Chicago | Lakshmi V.,Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Studies of HIV prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PREP) and circumcision in India are limited. The present study sought to investigate Indian truck-drivers initial commitment to PREP and circumcision utilizing the AIDS Risk Reduction Model. Ninety truck-drivers completed an in-depth qualitative interview and provided a blood sample for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Truck-drivers exhibited low levels of initial commitment towards PREP and even lower for circumcision. However, potential leverage points for increasing commitment were realized in fear of infecting family rather than self, self-perceptions of risk, and for PREP focusing on cultural beliefs towards medication and physicians. Cost was a major barrier to both HIV prevention interventions. Despite these barriers, our findings suggest that the ARRM may be useful in identifying several leverage points that may be used by peers, health care providers and public health field workers to enhance initial commitment to novel HIV prevention interventions in India. © 2010 Schneider et al.


Hemmige V.,University of Chicago | Snyder H.,University of Chicago | Liao C.,University of Chicago | Mayer K.,The Miriam Hospital | And 4 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2011

A divide exists between categories of men who have sex with men (MSM) in India based on their sex position, which has consequences for the design of novel HIV prevention interventions. We examine the interaction between sex position and other attributes on existing HIV risk including previous HIV testing, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and HIV serostatus among MSM recruited from drop-in centers and public cruising areas in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. A survey was administered by trained research assistants and minimally invasive HIV testing was performed by finger-stick or oral testing. HIV seropositive MSM underwent CD4 + lymphocyte count measurement. In our sample (n=676), 32.6% of men were married to women, 22.2% of receptive only participants were married, and 21.9% of men were HIV seropositive. In bivariate analysis, sex position was associated with previous HIV testing, UAI, HIV serostatus, and CD4 + lymphocyte count at diagnosis. In multivariate analysis with interaction terms, dual unmarried men were more likely to have undergone an HIV test than insertive unmarried men (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-6.5), a relationship that did not hold among married men. Conversely, dual married men were less likely than insertive married men to engage in UAI (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6), a relationship that did not hold among unmarried men. Further implementation research is warranted in order to best direct novel biologic and behavioral prevention interventions towards specific risk behaviors in this and other similar contexts. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011.


Schneider J.A.,University of Chicago | Michaels S.,National Opinion Research Center | Gandham S.R.,SHARE India | McFadden R.,University of Chicago | And 3 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2012

The role of circumcision in the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in resource restricted regions is poorly understood. This study explored the association of circumcision with HIV seroprevalence, in conjunction with other risk factors such as marriage and sex position, for a population of MSM in India. Participants (n = 387) were recruited from six drop-in centers in a large city in southern India. The overall HIV prevalence in this sample was high, at 18.6%. Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed a concentration of risk among receptive only, married, and uncircumcised MSM, with HIV prevalence in this group reaching nearly 50%. The adjusted odds of HIV infection amongst circumcised men was less than one fifth that of uncircumcised men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.17; 95% CI 0.07-0.46; P<0.001]. Within the group of receptive only MSM, infection was found to be lower among circumcised individuals (AOR, 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.76; P<0.05) in the context of circumcised MSM engaging in more UAI, having a more recent same sex encounter and less lubricant use when compared to uncircumcised receptive men. To further explain these results, future studies should focus on epidemiologic analyses of risk, augmented by social and sexual network analyses of MSM mixing. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Betha K.,SHARE India | Robertson J.M.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Tang G.,University of Pittsburgh | Haggerty C.L.,University of Pittsburgh
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2016

Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included "Chlamydia trachomatis", "CT", "prevalence", "India", and "sexually transmitted infections". Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15-45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted. © 2016 Kalpana Betha et al.


Schneider J.A.,University of Chicago | Kondareddy D.,SHARE India | Gandham S.,SHARE India | Dude A.M.,Duke University
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2012

HIV prevention programs for truck drivers and cleaners (TDC) in India are limited. Longitudinal followup presents an obstacle to program effectiveness evaluation. We asked 3,028 TDC in a truck-driver HIV prevention program in Hyderabad to leave a cellular telephone number; we contacted participants 6 months after the intervention to assess sexual risk behavior change. Married, older, and better educated participants were more likely to leave phone numbers. Only 6.5% of TDC were reachable after 6 months. Longitudinal follow-up of this mobile sub-population remains a challenge, and more effective methods for evaluating HIV prevention programs are needed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


PubMed | SHARE INDIA and University of Illinois at Chicago
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of STD & AIDS | Year: 2016

We assessed the barriers and facilitators to highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and determined their prevalence among HIV/AIDS patients in Hyderabad, India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected adults prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy and receiving care from nine clinics. Depression was screened using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and facilitators of HIV medication adherence were assessed using an 11-item scale which yielded a total positive attitude to disease score. Prevalence ratios of non-adherence between different categories of potential risk factors were calculated. We compared mean facilitators to adherence scores between the adherent and non-adherent population. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify independent risk factors. Among the 211 respondents, nearly 20% were non-adherent, approximately 8% had either moderately severe or severe depression and mean score for combined facilitators to medication adherence was 33.35 (7.88) out of a possible 44 points. Factors significantly associated with non-adherence included older age, female sex worker, moderate-to-severe depression and the combined facilitators to medication adherence score. These data from a broad range of clinical settings in Hyderabad reveal that key groups to focus on for adherence intervention are female sex workers, older persons and those with depression.

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