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Greater Noida, India

Sharda University is a private university based in Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. Wikipedia.

Tiwari M.,Sharda University
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Cancer is a leading cause of deaths. Millions of people are diagnosed with cancer every year. Many cancer cells have a protein all over their surface, while healthy cells typically do not express the protein as strongly. By conjugating, or binding, the gold nanoparticles to an antibody the researchers were able to get the nanoparticles to attach themselves to the cancer cells which may help us unravel the inner workings of a cancer cell and produce better treatments. In terms of drug delivery systems, nano particles enable unique approaches for cancer treatment. A large number of nanoparticle delivery systems have been developed for cancer therapy and currently they are in the preclinical stages of development. More recently developed nanoparticles are demonstrating the potential sophistication of these delivery systems by incorporating multifunctional capabilities and targeting strategies in an effort to increase the efficacy of these systems against the most difficult cancer challenges. This article reviews the available preclinical and clinical nanoparticle technology platforms and their impact on cancer therapy.

Singh S.,Sharda University
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) family of enzymes is best known for their cytoprotective role and their involvement in the development of anticancer drug resistance. Recently, emergence of non-detoxifying properties of GSTs has provided them with significant biological importance. Addressing the complex interactions of GSTs with regulatory kinases will help in understanding its precise role in tumor pathophysiology and in designing GST-centered anticancer strategies. Methods: We reviewed all published literature addressing the detoxification and regulatory roles of GSTs in the altered biology of cancer and evaluating novel agents targeting GSTs for cancer therapy. Results: The role of GSTs, especially glutathione S-trans-ferase P1 isoform in tumoral drug resistance, has been the cause of intense debate. GSTs have been demonstrated to interact with different protein partners and modulate signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These specific functions of GSTs could lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches and to the identification of some interesting candidates for preclinical and clinical development. This review focuses on the crucial role played by GSTs in the development of resistance to anticancer agents and the major findings regarding the different modes of action of GSTs to regulate cell signaling. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Tiwari M.,Sharda University
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Cell death has been divided into two main types: programmed cell death, in which the cell plays an active role, and passive (necrotic) cell death. Senescence arrest, accelerated senescence and differentiation are also responses that can be induced in response to DNA-damaging agents. Apoptosis may occur as a primary event following chemotherapy, in which genes that regulate apoptosis will influence the outcome of therapy or, alternatively, as an event secondary to the induction of lethal damage that involves the subsequent processing of cellular damage. The particular type of response induced is highly dependent on the agent and dose employed, the type of DNA damage induced as well as the genetic and cellular phenotypes. It has been proposed that apoptosis may play a lesser role in tumor response to radiation in comparison with the induction of cell death through mitotic catastrophe or a senescence-like irreversible growth arrest. However, in comparison with the induction of apoptosis, there is a lack of as much definitive information on other cell death processes that occur in cancer cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents, including antimetabolites. This article reviews what is known about these processes at the present time in response to experimental or clinically used agents that are analogs of 5-fluorouracil, cytidine or purines, hydroxyurea, or that belong to the family of folate antagonists.

Khatod D.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Pant V.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Sharma J.,Sharda University
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2013

In this paper, an evolutionary programming (EP) based technique has been presented for the optimal placement of distributed generation (DG) units energized by renewable energy resources (wind and solar) in a radial distribution system. The correlation between load and renewable resources has been nullified by dividing the study period into several segments and treating each segment independently. To handle the uncertainties associated with load and renewable resources, probabilistic techniques have been used. Two operation strategies, namely "turning off wind turbine generator" and "clipping wind turbine generator output", have also been adopted to restrict the wind power dispatch to a specified fraction of system load for system stability consideration. To reduce the search space and thereby to minimize the computational burden, a sensitivity analysis technique has been employed which gives a set of locations suitable for DG placement. For the proposed EP based approach, an index based scheme has also been developed to generate the population ensuring the feasibility of each individual and thus considerably reducing the computational time. The developed technique has been applied to a 12.66-kV, 69-bus distribution test system. The solutions result in significant loss reduction and voltage profile improvement. © 2012 IEEE.

Patil P.M.,Sharda University
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology | Year: 2011

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases, such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane, the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and, rarely in humans, to stresses, such as vigorous exercise and heat. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH provides the clinical diagnostic clues. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Dantrolene sodium is a specific antagonist of the pathophysiologic changes of MH and should be available wherever general anesthesia is administered. The prevention and treatment of acute episodes of this disorder is of paramount importance to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The management of such patients in the oral and maxillofacial surgery setting and the recent advances in the field of MH are presented. © 2011 Mosby, Inc.

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