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Intestinal parasitic protozoan diseases in Saudi Arabia are a significant public health problem with prevalence ranging from 4.1% to 42%. This study was carried out to determine the risk factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasitic protozoan infections among patients in Ad-Dawadimi General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted from the 1st of January to the end of December 2015. Faecal specimens from 4,000 patients who were admitted to Ad-Dawadimi General Hospital during the study period were analyzed by the formal-ether concentration technique to detect trophozoites and cysts of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts. Overall, intestinal parasitic protozoans were found in 470 patients (11.75%). The infection rate of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was 5%, 4.3% and 2.5%, respectively. Infection among males was (8.4%), while among females it was (3.4%). Age, gender and season were highly significant factors on the prevalence of parasites infection at P <0.005. However, the present study indicated that intestinal parasitic protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Saudi Arabia. © 2017, Malaysian Society for Parasitology. All rights reserved.


Hammad A.M.,University of Sadat City | Hassan H.A.,University of Sadat City | Hassan H.A.,Shaqra University | Shimamoto T.,Hiroshima University
Food Control | Year: 2015

Little is known about the influx of multidrug and/or virulent enterococcal strains from fresh raw milk cheese to the human digestive tract. In this study, 100 samples of popular Egyptian raw milk cheese, karish cheese, were analyzed to determine the incidence of Enterococcus spp., especially Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. We recovered 120 enterococcal isolates from 90 (90%, 90/100) samples. Thirty-seven strains (30.8%, 37/120), were identified as E.faecium and 13 (10.8%, 13/120) as E.faecalis. Fourteen (11.6%, 14/120) strains carried antibiotic resistance genes. These included tet(M), tet(L), tet(K), erm(B), and aph(3'), which were detected in 5%, 3.3%, 0.83%, 0.83%, and 0.83% of isolates, respectively. Interestingly, resistance to the most recently introduced anti-Gram-positive agent, linezolid, was detected alone and in combination with vancomycin resistance in 6.6% and 2.5% of isolated strains, respectively. Additionally, eight strains of E.faecalis carried one or more virulence genes, including asa1, cylA, esp, gelE, and hyl, while only one E.faecium strain carried gelE. Tn. 916-like elements detected in 11 (9.3%, 11/120) enterococcal strains. In conclusion, the fresh raw milk cheese, karish cheese, is a potential reservoir of antibiotic resistant and virulent enterococci that may constitute a public health hazard. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first detailed analysis about the ecology of antibiotic resistance and virulence in a variety of enterococci isolated from fresh raw milk cheese in Africa that promoting the necessary criteria for the phenotypic and molecular analysis of enterococci in this type of cheese to ensure their safety. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Khayyat H.A.,Shaqra University
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2016

The objectives of this study were to increase the physical understanding of the different phenomena taking place during the offset impact of an automotive bumper beam-longitudinal system as well as to validate a modeling procedure for the system's crash performance. The experimental database was used for the development and validation of modeling procedures for the crash performance of the bumper beam-longitudinal system with the use of the FE-code ANSYS-DYNA. The numerical model should be able to predict the collapse mode with a high level of certainty in order to ensure robust design. © IAEME Publication.


Alkhazaleh S.,Shaqra University
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2017

In this paper as a generalization of neutrosophic soft set we introduce the concept of n-valued refined neutrosophic soft set and study some of its properties. We also, define its basic operations, complement, union intersection, AND and OR and study their properties. © 2017-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Vorinostat [suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)], a histone deacetylase inhibitor, shows limited clinical activity against solid tumors when used alone. The methyl xanthine drug, pentoxifylline (PENT), has been described to have antitumor properties. The aim of this study was to look for the enhanced anticancer activities of both agents when used in combination at doses lower than their respective efficacy dose when used alone. We investigated the antitumor potential of this novel combination in vitro and in vivo. The combination index was assessed for these two drugs to look for synergistic antiproliferative activity against a broad spectrum of human cancer cell lines. Consistent additive to synergistic interactions were observed in HCT116 cells when PENT was combined with SAHA at all drug tested concentrations. The combination of SAHA and PENT induces chromatin condensation and apoptosis downstream of the pan histone deacetylase inhibition and phosphodiesterase regulation, leading to subsequent cell cycle arrest at their lower tested concentrations. Further, the ability of this combination to inhibit angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, was examined and a significant inhibition in tube formation in HUVEC cells and neovascularization of Matrigel plug was observed. A significant inhibition in tumor growth was observed in severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing HCT116 (colon) and PC3 (prostate) human xenografts treated with SAHA (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) in combination with PENT (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), with no loss in body weight and 100% survival. In conclusion, these findings indicate the enhanced anticancer activity of SAHA in combination with PENT both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Sheik Abdulazeez S.,Shaqra University
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal | Year: 2015

Diabetes mellitus is a major health concern of the developing and developed nations across the globe. This devastating disease accounts for the 5% deaths around the world annually. The current treatment methods do not address the underlying causes of the disease and have severe limitations. Stem cells are unique cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of specialized cells. This feature of both adult and embryonic stem cells was explored in great detail by the scientists around the world and are successful in producing insulin secreting cells. The different type of stem cells (induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells) proves to be potent in treating diabetes with certain limitations. This article precisely reviews the resources and progress made in the field of stem cell research for diabetic treatment. © 2013 King Saud University.


Al-Rohaimi A.H.,Shaqra University
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2015

The problem of poor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of curcumin can be sorted out after converting crystalline Curcumin (CrysCur) into amorphous NanoCurcumin (NanoCur). Amorphous NanoCur was prepared by converting into nanoemulsion (o/w) using water titration method. The formulation were pre-screen by different physical stress tests, followed by in vitro release study, zeta potential, viscosity, transmittance, globule size distribution and ex vivo studies. The morphology of the NanoCur was determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which revealed fairly spherical shape and good correlation with droplet size distribution study. The NanoCur was converted to gel using Cabopol 934. The composition of optimized NanoCur was curcumin (0.154% w/w), Carbopol 934 (0.702% w/w), ethanolic oil phase [ethanol (0.013% w/w): Capryol 90 (0.015%w/w)], Tween 20 (0.076%w/w) as surfactant, PEG 200 (0.038%w/w) as a co-surfactant and distilled water (q.s) as hydration phase. The steady state fux (Jss), permeability coeffcient (Kp) and enhancement ratio (Er) of NanoCur gel was determined and compared with CrysCur gel. Anti-inflammatory effects of the formulations were evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rats using Diclofenac as a reference. These ant-infammatory effects of NanoCur was highly significant (p<0.001) compared to CrysCur and significantly (p<0.05) comparable with standard Diclofenac. The histology of the formulation treated skin showed insignifcant changes in the integrity except in the group treated with NanoCur. The slight disruption in the integrity of skin may be because of surfactant present in the nano formulations. Short term storage stability showed insignificant changes in the droplet size and zeta potential, proving its high shelf-life. Finally, it was concluded that NanoCur could be a promising tool in the management of topical infammation. © 2015 by Japan Oil Chemists’ Society.


Reda A.M.,Shaqra University
Radiation Measurements | Year: 2011

Shielding for a D-T sealed neutron generator has been designed using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The neutron generator will be used in field for the detection of explosives, landmines, drugs and other 'threat' materials. The optimization of the detection of buried objects was started by studying the signal-to-noise ratio for different geometric conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Akl A.A.,Shaqra University | Hassanien A.S.,Shaqra University
Superlattices and Microstructures | Year: 2015

Cadmium sulfoselenide CdSxSe1-x thin films were thermally evaporated onto preheated glass substrates (523 K). The evaporation rate and film thickness were kept constant at 2.5 nm/s and 375 ± 5 nm, respectively. Microstructure and crystal imperfections of deposit CdSxSe1-x thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX). XRD analysis reveals the formation of films have the semi-crystalline nature and the hexagonal structure with preferential (0 0 2) direction. The microstructural parameters such as, lattice parameters, the crystallite size (D), microstrain (ε), residual internal stress (S), dislocation density (δ) and number of crystallite per unit volume (N) were calculated and found to be dependent upon the composition. The presence percentage of Cd, S and Se elements in the chalcogenide CdSxSe1-x thin films were estimated by EDAX and a comparative study with other similar samples of the previous literature was discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Abel-Salam B.K.A.,Shaqra University
Allergologia et Immunopathologia | Year: 2012

Background: Alteration in the proliferation capacity of leukocytes and in the level of some cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-8 have been suggested to associate with Diabetes mellitus in alloxan-induced diabetic rats given the potential immunomodulatory effects of black seeds and garlic. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to test the effects of these agents on the immune cells in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: To this end, Diabetes was induced in albino rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (120. mg/kg of body weight). Diabetic rats were then fed normal diet or diet with black seeds or garlic for 28 days. Results: The results showed significant increase in the numbers of monocytes and granulocytes, but with significant decreases in lymphocyte proliferation and the TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-8 levels in the diabetic group. Treatment of diabetic rats with black seeds or garlic induced significant amelioration in the numbers of monocytes and granulocytes, with significant increase in lymphocytes numbers and the TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-8 levels. Conclusions: These results indicate the potential beneficial effects of black seeds and garlic as adjuvant treatment during treatment of Diabetes. © 2011 SEICAP.

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