Xu Y.,Shaoxing University
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics | Year: 2013
Densities and viscosities of (n-butylammonium acetate (N4AC) protic ionic liquid + water) and (n-butylammonium nitrate (N4NO3) protic ionic liquid + water) mixtures were measured at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K under atmospheric pressure. Electrical conductivities of the above-mentioned systems were determined at 298.15 K. Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were obtained from the experimental results and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation with satisfactory results. Other volumetric properties, such as apparent molar volumes, partial molar volumes, and excess partial molar volumes were also calculated. The concentration dependence of electrical conductivity was fitted according to the empirical Casteel-Amis equation. Based on the measured and derived properties, the molecular interactions and structural factors in the above-mentioned systems were discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ye J.,Shaoxing University
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2014
The paper introduces the concept of simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs), which are a subclass of neutrosophic sets, and defines the operational laws of SNSs. Then, we propose some aggregation operators, including a simplified neutrosophic weighted arithmetic average operator and a simplified neutrosophic weighted geometric average operator. Based on the two aggregation operators and cosine similarity measure for SNSs, a multicriteria decision-making method is established in which the evaluation values of alternatives with respective to criteria are represented by the form of SNSs. The ranking order of alternatives is performed through the cosine similarity measure between an alternative and the ideal alternative and the best one(s) can be determined as well. Finally, a numerical example shows the application of the proposed method. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors.
Ma H.,Shaoxing University
Information Sciences | Year: 2010
Motivated by the migration mechanisms of ecosystems, various extensions to biogeography-based optimization (BBO) are proposed here. As a global optimization method, BBO is an original algorithm based on the mathematical model of organism distribution in biological systems. BBO is an evolutionary process that achieves information sharing by biogeography-based migration operators. In BBO, habitats represent candidate problem solutions, and species migration represents the sharing of features between candidate solutions according to the fitness of the habitats. This paper generalizes equilibrium species count results in biogeography theory, explores the behavior of six different migration models in BBO, and investigates performance through 23 benchmark functions with a wide range of dimensions and diverse complexities. The performance study shows that sinusoidal migration curves provide the best performance among the six different models that we explored. In addition, comparison with other biology-based optimization algorithms is investigated, and the influence of the population size, problem dimension, mutation rate, and maximum migration rate of BBO are also studied. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liang X.,Shaoxing University
Energy | Year: 2013
The one-step synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil with high FFAs (free fatty acids) content was developed under mild condition (70°C, 1atm) using novel acidic ionic liquid immobilization on PDVB (poly divinylbenzene) as catalyst. The solid acid owns high activities for both the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of triglyceride with total yield over 99.0%. The novel solid acid combined the high activities of acidic ionic liquids and the easy separation of solid catalysts. The mild reaction conditions, high catalytic activities, high total yield, reusability and high stability were the key properties of the novel methodology, which would greatly reduce the production cost for the industrial application. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Zhao B.,Shaoxing University
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012
New transition metal-catalyzed methods for the arylation of indolizines by the direct cleavage of C-H bonds have been developed. A wide range of aryltrifluoroborate salts react with indolizines in the presence of Pd(OAc) 2 catalyst and AgOAc oxidant to give the arylated indolizines in high yields. Both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups perform smoothly while bromide and chlorine substituents are tolerated. In addition, the indolizines display similar reactivities in the Pd-catalyzed reaction with 3-phenylpropiolic acid to afford the corresponding C-3 alkynylated indolizines. These methods allow the direct functionalization of indolizines in one step. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.