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Yan Z.,China Agricultural University | Zheng X.-W.,Wageningen University | Chen J.-Y.,China Agricultural University | Han J.-S.,Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co. | Han B.-Z.,China Agricultural University
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2013

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of malic, lactic, acetic, citric, succinic, propionic and butyric acids, during the incubation of Bacillus spp., was developed. All samples taken from cultivation were centrifuged (20 min, 11,500g at 5°C) and filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane filter before injection. A programme pumping phosphate buffer at pH 2.50 and acetonitrile was used to separate the compounds on a C18 column. Various parameters affecting analysis were optimized to take less than 30 min with a good linearity (R>0.999). Bacillus licheniformis or B. subtilis, isolated from Daqu, was inoculated to ferment a liquid culture of Daqu. Growth of bacteria and organic acid production during the fermentation were investigated. Although there were no significant differences in the production of organic acids between B. licheniformis and B. subtilis during the first 8 h, significant differences in the production rates of organic acids, except for citric acid, were observed between B. licheniformis and B. subtilis from 8 to 48 h, with the final concentration of each organic acid varying. © 2013 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

Zheng X.-W.,Wageningen University | Zheng X.-W.,China Agricultural University | Yan Z.,China Agricultural University | Nout M.J.R.,Wageningen University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the first phase of fermentation. Next, lactic acid bacteria increased in relative abundance, resulting in an increase of the acidity of Daqu. At the final stages of fermentation, Bacillus spp. and thermophilic fungi became the dominant groups, possibly due to their tolerance to low water activity and high temperature. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses confirmed that Bacillus spp. were ubiquitous throughout the process. Yeast species such as Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Pichia kudriavzevii were present throughout almost the entire fermentation process, but the zygomycetous fungus Lichtheimia corymbifera proliferated only during the final stages of fermentation. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed the significance of acidity, moisture content and temperature in correlation with the composition of the microbial communities at different stages. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Li X.-R.,Fudan University | Li X.-R.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Ma E.-B.,Shanxi University | Yan L.-Z.,Shanxi University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

Fermented foods and beverages are important parts of human diet. Fen liquor, a Chinese liquor is a fermented beverage that uses a traditional fermentation process. Starters are the main microbial source and also provide nutrients for microorganisms during fermentation. In this study, starters of Fen liquor were produced through a complex traditional fermentation process. To investigate the community structure and the composition of microorganisms in the starter production process, bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were sequenced using clone libraries and pyrosequencing, respectively. There was much higher diversity among the bacteria than among the fungi in the starter production process. Bacteria on the surface of the starters belonged mostly to the Lactobacillaceae family, while members of the Bacillacae family were dominant in the interior of the samples that lacked access to air and water. In the fungi population, diversity was high only in the raw material. In all other samples, nearly all of the fungal sequences were from Pichia kudriavzevii, a member of the Saccharomycetaceae family. Nearly all samples showed similar fungal community structures, indicating that there was little change in the fungal community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to reveal the whole process of the starter production of Chinese traditional liquor. The findings obtained in this study provide new insights into understanding the composition of the microbial community during the traditional Chinese liquor starter production process and information about the production process control and monitoring. © 2013 The Microbiological Society of Korea and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co. | Date: 1998-05-12

wines, liqueurs and distilled spirits made from rice.

Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co. | Date: 2011-04-26

Alcoholic beverages, except beer.

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