Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co.

Shanxi, China

Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co.

Shanxi, China
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Zhang X.,Shanxi Normal University | Zhang X.,Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co. | Zhao J.,Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co. | Du X.,Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co.
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

The bacterial community of Daqu affects its characteristics and functions by their metabolic products, such as amylase, protease, esterase. In this study, barcoded pyrosequencing was used to analyse the bacterial communities of three kinds of Daqu for light-flavour Chinese liquor brewing. A total of 13672 sequences were identified as bacterial sequences. The Shannon index of QC, HX and GT for clusters sharing 97% homology was 5·0, 4·2 and 4·2, respectively, indicating that QC had the highest biodiversity. The Good's coverage index of QC, HX and GT was 88·2, 93·4 and 93%, respectively, indicating that the vast majority of phylotypes have been detected. Among the three kinds of Daqu, the majority of annotated reads were assigned to two phyla (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria). The phylum Firmicutes was the most abundant group in QC (74·2%), HX (81·4%) and GT (98·6%), and the phylum Actinobacteria was the second in QC (23·9%), HX (17·9%) and GT (1·1%). There were many lactic acid bacteria in all three kinds of Daqu QC (45·8%), HX (46·3%) and GT (24·7%). In addition, the most abundant family in GT was Bacillus, accounting for 65·0%, while in HX, the families Thermoactinomycetaceae and Streptomycetaceae accounted for 19·5 and 14·1%, respectively, and in QC, 13·1% were Streptomycetaceae, 12·2% were heterofermentative Leuconostocaceae. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Zheng Y.,China Agricultural University | Zheng X.-W.,China Agricultural University | Zheng X.-W.,Wageningen University | Han B.-Z.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became dominant in Daqu, and next, to assess the impact of Bacillus sp. on Daqu and its derived products. We combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to study the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation. Throughout the incubation, 67 presumptive Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained, 52 of which were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identified organisms belonged to 8 Bacillus species: B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and B. anthracis. A primer set specific for Bacillus and related genera was used in a selective PCR study, followed by a nested DGGE PCR targeting the V9 region of the 16S rDNA. Species identified from the PCR-DGGE fingerprints were related to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, B. benzoevorans, and B. foraminis. The predominant species was found to be B. licheniformis. Certain B. licheniformis strains exhibited potent antimicrobial activities. The greatest species diversity occurred at the Liangmei stage of Daqu incubation. To date, we lack sufficient knowledge of Bacillus distribution in Daqu. Elucidating the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation would enable the impact of Bacillus on Daqu to be accessed, and the quality and stabilization of Daqu-derived products to be optimized.© The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Li X.-R.,Fudan University | Li X.-R.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Ma E.-B.,Shanxi University | Yan L.-Z.,Shanxi University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

Fermented foods and beverages are important parts of human diet. Fen liquor, a Chinese liquor is a fermented beverage that uses a traditional fermentation process. Starters are the main microbial source and also provide nutrients for microorganisms during fermentation. In this study, starters of Fen liquor were produced through a complex traditional fermentation process. To investigate the community structure and the composition of microorganisms in the starter production process, bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were sequenced using clone libraries and pyrosequencing, respectively. There was much higher diversity among the bacteria than among the fungi in the starter production process. Bacteria on the surface of the starters belonged mostly to the Lactobacillaceae family, while members of the Bacillacae family were dominant in the interior of the samples that lacked access to air and water. In the fungi population, diversity was high only in the raw material. In all other samples, nearly all of the fungal sequences were from Pichia kudriavzevii, a member of the Saccharomycetaceae family. Nearly all samples showed similar fungal community structures, indicating that there was little change in the fungal community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to reveal the whole process of the starter production of Chinese traditional liquor. The findings obtained in this study provide new insights into understanding the composition of the microbial community during the traditional Chinese liquor starter production process and information about the production process control and monitoring. © 2013 The Microbiological Society of Korea and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zheng X.-W.,Wageningen University | Zheng X.-W.,China Agricultural University | Yan Z.,China Agricultural University | Nout M.J.R.,Wageningen University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the first phase of fermentation. Next, lactic acid bacteria increased in relative abundance, resulting in an increase of the acidity of Daqu. At the final stages of fermentation, Bacillus spp. and thermophilic fungi became the dominant groups, possibly due to their tolerance to low water activity and high temperature. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses confirmed that Bacillus spp. were ubiquitous throughout the process. Yeast species such as Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Pichia kudriavzevii were present throughout almost the entire fermentation process, but the zygomycetous fungus Lichtheimia corymbifera proliferated only during the final stages of fermentation. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed the significance of acidity, moisture content and temperature in correlation with the composition of the microbial communities at different stages. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Yan Z.,China Agricultural University | Zheng X.-W.,Wageningen University | Chen J.-Y.,China Agricultural University | Han J.-S.,Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co. | Han B.-Z.,China Agricultural University
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2013

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of malic, lactic, acetic, citric, succinic, propionic and butyric acids, during the incubation of Bacillus spp., was developed. All samples taken from cultivation were centrifuged (20 min, 11,500g at 5°C) and filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane filter before injection. A programme pumping phosphate buffer at pH 2.50 and acetonitrile was used to separate the compounds on a C18 column. Various parameters affecting analysis were optimized to take less than 30 min with a good linearity (R>0.999). Bacillus licheniformis or B. subtilis, isolated from Daqu, was inoculated to ferment a liquid culture of Daqu. Growth of bacteria and organic acid production during the fermentation were investigated. Although there were no significant differences in the production of organic acids between B. licheniformis and B. subtilis during the first 8 h, significant differences in the production rates of organic acids, except for citric acid, were observed between B. licheniformis and B. subtilis from 8 to 48 h, with the final concentration of each organic acid varying. © 2013 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

Li X.-R.,Fudan University | Ma E.-B.,Shanxi University | Yan L.-Z.,Shanxi University | Meng H.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

This study endeavored to investigate the variability of bacteria and fungi present during the fermentation process of the light-fragranced distilled liquor known as Fen liquor. To accomplish this, we used a combination of clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes, bar-coded pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1), and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Fifteen families of bacteria and six families of fungi were detected. More than 91% of 16S rRNA gene sequences could be assigned to the family Lactobacillaceae, which were then classified to eight different operational taxonomic units (OTUs), based on a 3% cut-off. The most abundant OTU which contributed to 51% of the total 16S rRNA gene sequences was affiliated with Lactobacillus acetotolerans and had a significantly similar variation trend with the chemical constituents detected. Sixty percent of the fungal ITS1 region sequences were affiliated with the family Saccharomycetaceae. The most abundant OTU was very similar to Issatchenkia orientalis, which displayed notable similarities with respect to the change trends in both ethanol and organic acid contents. The sequences of the second most abundant OTU were closest to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an important species in the process of ethanol production. Furthermore, about one fourth of the ITS1 region sequences belonged to the family Saccharomycopsidaceae. Conversely, very few sequences could be grouped together with filamentous fungi. The results of qPCR showed that the content of bacteria was increased while that of fungi was more stable in the fermentation process. It is very important to simultaneously investigate bacterial and fungal variations in food-fermentation processes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co. | Date: 2011-07-19

Alcoholic fruit extracts; aperitifs; arrack; distilled beverages, namely, distilled spirits; wine; distilled spirits as beverages; alcoholic extracts; alcoholic beverages, except beer; yellow rice wine.

Shanxi Xinghuacun Fenjiu Distillery Co. | Date: 2011-04-26

Alcoholic beverages, except beer.

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