He L.,Beijing Forestry University |
Li L.-H.,Beijing Forestry University |
Wang W.-X.,Beijing Forestry University |
Liu G.,Beijing Forestry University |
And 3 more authors.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2014
Musk deer are an important economic wildlife resource, and long-term over-use has resulted in a sharp population decrease in the wild. Farming of musk deer is important to prevent the shrinking wild population from being hunted for their musk. Musk deer farming has a history of more than 60 years in China, but many problems persist. Musk deer are alert, timid and solitary in the wild, and the captive environment cannot satisfy their natural needs, leading to problems in musk deer farming. Understanding the biological characteristics of musk deer may help to identify ways for improving the welfare of farmed musk deer. In addition to gaining musk, musk deer farming can play a role in the reintroduction of musk deer, which complicates things as musk production requires tame domesticated musk deer whereas successful reintroduction requires untamed and less domesticated ones. In this article, we compare captive musk deer and wild musk deer for morphology, behavior, physiology, genetics, and nutrition, and discuss how to organize farming environment and management to satisfy biological needs of musk deer in order to improve their welfare and increase the population of farmed musk deer. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Zhang Z.,CAS Institute of Zoology |
Wang Z.,CAS Institute of Zoology |
Wang Z.,Jiangxi Normal University |
Chang G.,Shanxi Institute of Zoology |
And 8 more authors.
Plant Ecology | Year: 2016
Plants often have two kinds of defensive traits against animal predation: physical and chemical defenses, but the trade-off between them is heavily debated, and their impacts on relationship between plants and animals are largely unknown. We investigated seed traits of 23 tree species and their impacts on seed fates or hoarding behaviors under predation from 16 rodent species in four forest types in China. We provide clear evidence that there is a strong nonlinear trade-off between physical (as measured by seed coat thickness) and chemical (as measured by tannin content) defensive traits in seeds. This trade-off was closely associated with nutritional traits, resulting in coordinated defense syndromes in seeds. The seed fate and hoarding behavior patterns were largely determined by the trade-off-related seed traits and the body mass of rodents, respectively, not by the phylogenetic relations of species. Tree species showed more conservative evolution in seed traits of high starch content, high tannin content, and thin seed coat, but they showed more convergent/divergent evolution in seed traits of high protein content, high fat content, and thick seed coat under rodent predation. Our results suggest that trade-off-related seed traits may play a predominant role in shaping the relationship between plants and animals. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Zhang H.,Central China Normal University |
Zhang H.,CAS Institute of Zoology |
Wang Z.,Central China Normal University |
Zeng Q.,Central China Normal University |
And 3 more authors.
Wildlife Research | Year: 2015
Context Mutualistic interactions between animals and plants shape the structure of plant-animal systems and, subsequently, affect plant-community structure and regeneration. Aims To assess the effects of plant and rodent functional traits on the formation of mutualistic and predatory interactions regarding seed dispersal and predation in a warm-temperate forest. Methods Seed scatter-hoarding and predation by six sympatric rodent species on seeds belonging to five sympatric tree species were tested under enclosure conditions. Key results Functional traits (i.e. rodent body size and seed traits) are important to mutualism/predation in this seed-rodent system. The rodent-seed network is highly nested: large-sized rodents have mutualistic or predatory interactions with both large- and small-sized seed species, but small-sized rodents interacted with small-sized seed species only. Large seeds or seeds with hard coats enhanced mutualism and reduced predation. Conclusion Body size of rodents and seed traits such as handling time and nutritional value are key factors in the formation of mutualistic and predatory interactions within seed-rodent systems. Implications To promote seedling establishment in degenerated forests, introducing or protecting large-sized scatter hoarders and reducing the density of pure seed eaters are needed. © 2015 CSIRO.
Wang Q.-X.,shanxi Institute of Zoology |
Yang C.,shanxi Institute of Zoology |
Xiao H.,shanxi Institute of Zoology
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013
By using e-Science information technology, an investigation was made on the hatching · behavior of relict gull (Larus relictus) in the Hongjiannao of Shannxi Province, Northwest China from May to June, 2012. The diurnal hatching rhythms at different hatching stages were as the follows. At daytime, the times of exchanging hatching at the early, medium, and late stages of hatching averaged 6.40±0.45 (n = 68), 2.20±0.12 (n = 66), and 1.81±0. 10 (ra = 48), the changes of sitting nest direction averaged 35. 34±2. 12 (n = 68), 18. 73±0. 85 (n = 66), and 15. 17±0. 75 (n = 48), and the times of turning eggs over averaged 10. 81 ±0. 50 (n = 68), 10. 14±0.55 (n = 66), and 8. 65±0.51 (n = 48), respectively. At night, the times of exchanging hatching averaged 2. 37 ±0.20 (n = 62), 0.52±0.06 (n = 60), and 0.53±0.07 (n = 47), the changes of sitting nest direction averaged 16. 16±0. 67 (n = 62), 4.28±0.31 (n = 60), and 3. 87±0.34 (n = 47), and the times of turning eggs over averaged 6.58±0.40 (n = 62), 4.22± 0. 30 (n = 60), and 3.26±0.22 (n = 47), respectively. On the days with strong wind and heavy rain, there existed significant differences in the times of exchanging hatching, the changes of sitting nest direction, and the times of turning eggs over at the same hatching stages, as compared with those on fine days. The time intervals of exchanging hatching by the parents were mainly 04:00-06:00, 08:00-10:00, and 12:00-14:00. At the late stage of hatching, the duration of sitting nest by the parents was as long as 601.14±31.16 min (n = 56). It was suggested that the parents controlled the egg temperature via regulating the diurnal hatching rhythm to assure the normal development of egg embryo during daytime and night.