Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease

Linfen, China

Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease

Linfen, China

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Zimmermann M.B.,ETH Zurich | Al Ghannami S.,Ministry of Health | El Badawi S.,Ministry of Health | Al Hamad N.M.,Ministry of Health | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: The urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a biomarker of iodine intake, is used to assess population iodine status by deriving the median UIC, but this does not quantify the percentage of individuals with habitually deficient or excess iodine intakes. Individuals with a UIC <100 μg/L or ≥300 μg/L are often incorrectly classified as having deficient or excess intakes, but this likely overestimates the true prevalence. Objective: Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate and excess iodine intake in children (aged 4-14 y) with the distribution of spot UIC from iodine surveys. Methods: With the use of data from national iodine studies (Kuwait, Oman, Thailand, and Qatar) and a regional study (China) in children (n = 6117) in which a repeat UIC was obtained in a subsample (n = 1060), we calculated daily iodine intake from spot UICs from the relation between body weight and 24-h urine volume and within-person variation by using the repeat UIC. We also estimated pooled external within-person proportion of total variances by region. We used withinperson variance proportions to obtain the prevalence of inadequate or excess usual iodine intake by using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)/Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) cutoffmethod. Results: Median UICs in Kuwait, Oman, China, Thailand, and Qatar were 132, 192, 199, 262, and 333 μg/L, respectively. Internal within-person variance proportions ranged from 25.0% to 80.0%, and pooled regional external estimates ranged from 40.4% to 77.5%. The prevalence of inadequate and excess intakes as defined by the adjusted EAR/UL cutoffmethod was ;45-99% lower than those defined by a spot UIC <100 μg/L or ≥300 μg/L (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Applying the EAR/UL cutoffmethod to iodine intakes from adjusted UIC distributions is a promising approach to estimate the number of individuals with deficient or excess iodine intakes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.


PubMed | Ministry of Education, Iowa State University, Ministry of Health, ETH Zurich and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2016

The urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a biomarker of iodine intake, is used to assess population iodine status by deriving the median UIC, but this does not quantify the percentage of individuals with habitually deficient or excess iodine intakes. Individuals with a UIC <100 g/L or 300 g/L are often incorrectly classified as having deficient or excess intakes, but this likely overestimates the true prevalence.Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate and excess iodine intake in children (aged 4-14 y) with the distribution of spot UIC from iodine surveys.With the use of data from national iodine studies (Kuwait, Oman, Thailand, and Qatar) and a regional study (China) in children (n = 6117) in which a repeat UIC was obtained in a subsample (n = 1060), we calculated daily iodine intake from spot UICs from the relation between body weight and 24-h urine volume and within-person variation by using the repeat UIC. We also estimated pooled external within-person proportion of total variances by region. We used within-person variance proportions to obtain the prevalence of inadequate or excess usual iodine intake by using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)/Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) cutoff method.Median UICs in Kuwait, Oman, China, Thailand, and Qatar were 132, 192, 199, 262, and 333 g/L, respectively. Internal within-person variance proportions ranged from 25.0% to 80.0%, and pooled regional external estimates ranged from 40.4% to 77.5%. The prevalence of inadequate and excess intakes as defined by the adjusted EAR/UL cutoff method was 45-99% lower than those defined by a spot UIC <100 g/L or 300 g/L (P < 0.01).Applying the EAR/UL cutoff method to iodine intakes from adjusted UIC distributions is a promising approach to estimate the number of individuals with deficient or excess iodine intakes.


Wang D.,Soochow University of China | Wang S.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wang Z.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Zhang L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

Biological monitoring for arsenic is usually based upon a determination of urine, blood, nail and hair arsenic concentration, however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for arsenicbiomonitoring, Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry(AFS-230) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) were used to evaluate the concentration of arsenic in drinking water, saliva and urine in endemic arsenicosis area in Shanyin County of Shanxi Province. The results showed that the arsenic concentration in drinking water was 0.55-720.0ug/L, and there were 66.67% samples above the arsenic level (50μg/L) of standards for drinking water quality. The median value of arsenic in drinking water was 127.22 μg/L. The salivary and urinary arsenic both can reflect the exposure of arsenic in drinking water. Additionally, there was a significant positive association of salivary arsenic compared with arsenic in drinking water (r=0.674, P<0.05) and urinary arsenic(r=0.794, P<0.05). These results demonstrated that, similar to urinary arsenic, salivary arsenic also can be used as a biomarker for assessing human exposue to arsenic.


Liu J.,Soochow University of China | Wang S.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wang Z.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wang D.,Soochow University of China | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings 2011 International Conference on Human Health and Biomedical Engineering, HHBE 2011 | Year: 2011

Arsenic exposure from drinking water was considered to be a risk factor for skin lesions. In our research, the total arsenic in water and urine samples were analyzed by ICP-MS and AFS, respectively, Arsenic concentration in drinking water was 4.04-720ug/L, and there were 63.49% (80/126) samples above 50μg/L. Urinary total arsenic concentration was 6.51-775.73ug/gCr. Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze the strength of association between arsenic in drinking water and in urine(r=0.686, p< 0.05). The level of iron in drinking water was ranged from 0 to 6.46mg/L, and there were 18.4%(23/125) iron levels exceeding 0.5mg/L We observed the strong association between arsenic in drinking water and in urine, and dose-dependent increase in risk of skin lesions with increasing arsenic exposure. Especially, at lower levels of arsenic exposure(10-50ug/L), the effect of arsenic induced skin lesions was still observed. Iron and arsenic in the arsenic poisoning proceeding might exist combined effect. © 2011 IEEE.


Li J.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wang S.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wang Z.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Jia Q.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the distribution of endemic arsenism and to provide a scientific basis for control and prevention of the disease. Methods: According to previous investigation, in the high-arsenic water areas, the arsenic diseased areas and the surrounding lands, 35 counties were investigated. Water arsenic was screened in all the survey sites, villages with water arsenic exceeding the standard were quantitative surveyed of water arsenic and the disease conditions. Screening of arsenic content in drinking water was done by the method of half-quantitative fast reagent kit. Quantitative determination of arsenic in water was done by hydride generationatomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Patients of endemic arsenism were diagnosed by the "Standard of Diagnosis for Endemic Arsenism"(WS/T 211-2001). Identification of area was done by "Definition and Division Standard for Endemic Arsenism" (WS 277-2007). The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 for windows. Results: Water arsenic of 151 villages in 15 counties among 1 771 villages were higher than thenational drinking water quality level(0.05 mg/L). Exposure population of high arsenic was 177 018 people. The census results of high arsenic water sources indicated that the ratio of drinking water arsenic levels higher than the national standard was 35.10% (2 355/6 709) and the highest contents of arsenic was 1.733 0 mg/L. The disease census indicated · that there were 33 latency arsenism districts and 118 arsenism districts. There was totally 39 757 patients with latency arsenism. Totally 137 261 people lived in arsenism districts. Light, moderate and severe arsenism districts was 82, 29 and 7, respectively. Totally 1 244 suspicious patients with endemic arsenism were discovered, and 3 473 light and more severe patients were discovered and the detected rate of light and more severe patients was 2.54% (3 473/136 924). Most patient were not serious. Conclusions: High arsenic areas and endemic arsenism areas are distributed in 15 counties of Shanxi Province. In the future primary task in prevention and' control of endemic arsenism is comprehensive prevention and control measures.


Li J.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wang S.-X.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wang Z.-H.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Cheng X.-T.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To explore the long-term effect of endemic arsenism on oxidative stress and immune function, and to provide scientific basis for prevention and treatment of the disease in the areas. Methods: In 2009, Using cluster sampling and typical investigation, the cross-sectional study was completed. The patient groups and the internal control group were selected in the arsenism areas after 5 years quality improvement of drinking water(Silizhuang village, Daying village and Gucheng village in Shanyin county, Gucheng city, Shanxi province) and they were divided into mild, moderate, severe case and internal control groups, respectively. The external control group was selected in a non-arsenism area(Yangzhuang village in Heshengbu city). The Oxidative stress indicators were determined and analyzed [serum superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity was determined with xanthine oxidase method, glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) activity was determined with 2-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid method, and mmuuity malondisldohyde(MDA) levels was determined with thiobarbituric acid method]. The immune function was determined and analyzed [immunoglobulin G(IgG) was determined with radioimmunoassay method, and serum lysozyme was determined with turbidimetric method]. Results: A total of 252 people were surveyed, in which the external control group, the internal control group, mild, moderate and severe patient groups were 56, 57, 49, 44 and 46, respectively. Serum SOD activities were (72.19 ± 11.75), (66.96 ± 12.02), (49.79 ± 11.07), (48.54 ± 10.56) and (47.68 ± 10.68)kU/L, respectively. The difference of serum SOD activities between the groups was statistically significant(F= 52.42, P< 0.01). Serum SOD activities in the external control group were significantly higher than other groups (all P < 0.05). The value in the internal control group was significandy higher than the 3 patient groups (all P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the case groups (P > 0.05). Serum GSH-Px activities of the five groups were (197.41 ± 38.54), (195.02 ± 31.93), (187.26 ± 28.22), (187.24 ± 25.40), (186.88 ± 21.84)U/mg, respectively, and the difference between the groups was not significant(H = 4.21, P > 0.05). Serum MDA levels of the five groups were (4.51 ± 2.14), (5.88 ± 2.00), (6.44 ± 2.83), (5.89 ± 2.57), (5.88 ± 2.40)μmol/L, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant(F = 3.36, P < 0.05). The external control group was significantly lower than other groups(all P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (all P> 0.05). Serum IgG levels were (11.16 ± 2.08), (8.15 ± 1.44), (8.77 ± 2.54), (9.19 ± 1.97), (8.44 ± 2.52)g/L, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (H = 52.92, P < 0.01). The external control group was significantly higher than other groups (all P< 0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups(all P > 0.05). Serum lysozyme levels were (13.57 ± 5.16), (10.05 ± 3.96), (8.78 ± 3.35), (8.72 ± 3.76), (9.38 ± 4.26)mg/L, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant(H = 35.00, P< 0.01). The external control group was significantly higher than other groups (all P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups(all P > 0.05). Conclusions The effect of arsenic on the body's oxidative stress response and immune function persists after 5 years of drinking low arsenic water. In addition to intensify arsenic removal from drinking water, it should also strengthen the monitoring of population's health in the diseased areas.


Guo B.-S.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Jia Q.-Z.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Chen H.-Y.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wen X.-P.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | And 6 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2013

Objective: To apply a uniform design method to optimize the experimental conditions for iodine determination in foods by alkaline ashing-As 3+-Ce4+ catalytic spectrophotometric method. Methods: According to the current method for determination of food iodine, uniform design table U*4) for experimental conditions was set up as(K 2CO3-ZnSO4 mixed solution, KClO 3-NaCl mixed solution, ashing temperature, ashing time), iodine content in soybean was determined, and recovery rate was calculated. Mathematical model of recovery rate and various test conditions was established. Optimal combinational assay conditions were calculated. As a verification test, the optimal combinational assay was repeatedly used to determine iodine content in soybean for 3 times. Results: The optimal combination for determination conditions was: K2CO3-ZnSO4 mixed solution 1.5 ml and KClO3-NaCl mixed solution 1.5 ml, ashing temperature 550°C and ashing time 4.5 h. The average recovery rate for determination of iodine content in soybean was 101.6% for the 3 times. Conclusion: The optimal combination of determination conditions by uniform design is used in determination of iodine content of food(soybean) with satisfactory results.


Wu Z.-M.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wang Z.-H.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Li P.-F.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Jing Y.-L.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease | Wu M.,Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the actual situation of implementation of the project to reduce water arsenic in endemic arsenic poisoning areas in Shanxi province, and to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of the disease. Methods: In June 2011, a questionnaire survey of 151 arsenic endemic villages was carried out in Shanxi province. The actual situation of implementation of the project to reduce water arsenic was investigated. Water samples were collected and arsenic level was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Results: In the 151 arsenic poisoning villages 126 villages had changed the water, and the rate was 83.44%. In these villages, 22 villages did not use the water improvement utilities properly. Of the 33 water improvement projects to reduce arsenic, 23 operated normally. The projects covered 110 villages, beneficiary population of 97 920 people, accounting for 46.9%(97 920/208 736) of the total population. Water arsenic exceeded the national standards(≤0.05 mg/L) in 10 of the water improvement projects which covered 31 villages, including 15 non-endemic villages and 16 diseased villages. There were a population of 24 764 people in the diseased villages. Conclusions: In Shanxi endemic arsenic poisoning areas, water improvement efforts need to be strengthened; the quality of water improvement project needs to be improved, and the project's later management and maintenance also need to be further strengthened.

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