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PubMed | Shanxi Medical University, Calvary Materials Newcastle Hospital, University of New South Wales and Shanxi Cancer Hospital and Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncogene | Year: 2016

Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and is a tumor suppressor in some types of cancers. However, we have found that it is frequently upregulated in human colon cancer cells. Here we show that silencing of INPP4B blocks activation of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3), inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and retards colon cancer xenograft growth. Conversely, overexpression of INPP4B increases proliferation and triggers anchorage-independent growth of normal colon epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effect of INPP4B on Akt and SGK3 is associated with inactivation of phosphate and tensin homolog through its protein phosphatase activity and that the increase in INPP4B is due to Ets-1-mediated transcriptional upregulation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that INPP4B may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer, with potential implications for targeting INPP4B as a novel approach to treat this disease.

Chi M.,University of Newcastle | Chi M.,Shanxi Cancer Hospital and Institute | Chen J.,University of Queensland | Chen J.,University of Newcastle | And 9 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Epidemiological evidence has linked the development and progression of several cancers including melanoma with obesity. However, whether obesity impinges on responses of cancer cells to treatment remains less understood. Here we report that human adipocytes contribute to resistance of melanoma cells to various therapeutic agents. Exposure to media from adipocyte cultures (adipocyte media) increased cell proliferation and reduced sensitivity of melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by diverse chemotherapeutic drugs, including the DNA-damaging drug cisplatin, the microtubuletargeting agent docetaxel, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. This was associated with increased activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling, and was attenuated by a PI3K or MEK inhibitor. The effect of adipocyte media on melanoma cells was, at least in part, due to the interaction between the adipokine leptin and its long form receptor OB-Rb, in that immunodepletion of leptin in adipocyte media or siRNA knockdown of OB-Rb in melanoma cells reversed the increase in Akt and ERK activation, enhancement in cell proliferation, and importantly, protection of melanoma cells against the drugs. In support, recombinant leptin partially recapitulated the effect of adipocyte media on melanoma cells. Of note, OB-Rb was increased on the surface of melanoma cells compared to melanocytes, whereas leptin short form receptors appeared to be suppressed post-transcriptionally, suggesting that OB-Rb was selectively upregulated in melanoma cells. Collectively, these results indicate that adipocytes contribute to the resistance of melanoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and agents targeting the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways, and suggest that inhibition of the leptin/OB-Rb system may be useful to improve the efficacy of multiple therapeutic approaches in the treatment of melanoma. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Wu P.Y.,Shanxi Medical University | Wu P.Y.,Shanxi Cancer Hospital | Zhang X.D.,University of Newcastle | Zhang X.D.,Shanxi Cancer Hospital and Institute | And 3 more authors.
Human Pathology | Year: 2014

Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) encompasses a biologically and clinically diverse set of diseases, increasing evidence has pointed to an important role of microRNAs (miRs) in the pathogenesis of DLBCL. We report here that low expression of miR-146b-5p and miR-320d is associated with poor prognosis of DLBCL patients treated with the standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) regimen and that this is related to the inhibitory effect of these miRs on DLBCL cell proliferation. Analysis of a retrospective cohort of 106 primary nodal DLBCL samples from patients who were treated with CHOP showed that, when the median survival period (40.8 months) was used as the cutoff point, miR-146b-5p and miR-320d were expressed at lower levels in DLBCLs with poor prognosis. Indeed, whereas low expression of miR-146b-5p was correlated with reduced progression-free survival, low expression of miR-320d was associated with decreases in both progression-free survival and overall survival. Moreover, miR-146b-5p and miR-320d were expressed at significantly lower levels in DLBCLs with the MYC t(8;14) translocation. Functional studies demonstrated that overexpression of miR-146b-5p or miR-320d inhibited DLBCL cell proliferation, wheareas knockdown of miR-146b-5p or miR-320d promoted proliferation of DLBCL cells. Taken together, these results suggest that low expression of miR-146b-5p and miR-320d may be predictive of compromised responses of a subset of DLBCL patients to treatment with the CHOP regimen and that restoration of these miRs may be useful to improve the therapeutic efficacy of CHOP. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Tay K.H.,University of Newcastle | Jin L.,University of Sydney | Tseng Hs.-Y.,University of Newcastle | Tseng Hs.-Y.,University of Sydney | And 9 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2012

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers apoptosis by activating Bim in diverse types of cells, which involves dephosphorylation of BimEL by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). However, melanoma cells are largely resistant to ER stressinduced apoptosis, suggesting that Bim activation is suppressed in melanoma cells undergoing ER stress. We show here that ER stress reduces PP2A activity leading to increased ERK activation and subsequent phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation of BimEL. Despite sustained upregulation of Bim at the transcriptional level, the BimEL protein expression was downregulated after an initial increase in melanoma cells subjected to pharmacological ER stress. This was mediated by increased activity of ERK, whereas the phosphatase activity of PP2A was reduced by ER stress in melanoma cells. The increase in ERK activation was, at least in part, due to reduced dephosphorylation by PP2A, which was associated with downregulation of the PP2A catalytic C subunit. Notably, instead of direct dephosphorylation of BimEL, PP2A inhibited its phosphorylation indirectly through dephosphorylation of ERK in melanoma cells. Taken together, these results identify downregualtion of PP2A activity as an important protective mechanism of melanoma cells against ER stress-induced apoptosis. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Jiang C.C.,Priority Research Center for Cancer Research | Croft A.,Priority Research Center for Cancer Research | Tseng H.-Y.,Priority Research Center for Cancer Research | Guo S.T.,Shanxi Cancer Hospital and Institute | And 3 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Increased global protein synthesis and selective translation of mRNAs encoding proteins contributing to malignancy is common in cancer cells. This is often associated with elevated expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 (eIF4E), the rate-limiting factor of cap-dependent translation initiation. We report here that in human melanoma downregulation of miR-768-3p as a result of activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway has an important role in the upregulation of eIF4E and enhancement in protein synthesis. Melanoma cells displayed increased nascent protein production and elevated eIF4E expression, which was associated with the downregulation of miR-768-3p that was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of the eIF4E mRNA. Overexpression of miR-768-3p led to the downregulation of the endogenous eIF4E protein, reduction in nascent protein synthesis and inhibition of cell survival and proliferation. These effects were efficiently reversed when eIF4E was co-overexpressed in melanoma cells. On the other hand, introduction of anti-miR-768-3p into melanocytes upregulated endogenous eIF4E protein expression and increased global protein synthesis. Downregulation of miR-768-3p appeared to be mediated by activation of the MEK/ERK pathway, in that treatment of BRAF V600E melanoma cells with the mutant BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 or exposure of either BRAF V600E or wild-type BRAF melanoma cells to the MEK inhibitor U0126 resulted in the upregulation of miR-768-3p and inhibition of nascent protein synthesis. This inhibition was partially blocked in cells cointroduced with anti-miR-768-3p. Significantly, miR-768-3p was similarly downregulated, which was inversely associated with the expression levels of eIF4E in fresh melanoma isolates. Taken together, these results identify downregulation of miR-768-3p and subsequent upregulation of eIF4E as an important mechanism in addition to phosphorylation of eIF4E responsible for MEK/ERK-mediated enhancement of protein synthesis in melanoma. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Liu Y.L.,University of Newcastle | Lai F.,University of Newcastle | Wilmott J.S.,University of Sydney | Yan X.G.,University of Newcastle | And 9 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

Reduction in the expression of the anti-survival BH3-only proteins PUMA and Bim is associated with the pathogenesis of melanoma. However, we have found that the expression of the other BH3-only protein Noxa is commonly upregulated in melanoma cells, and that this is driven by oncogenic activation of MEK/ERK. Immunohistochemistry studies showed that Noxa was expressed at higher levels in melanomas than nevi. Moreover, the expression of Noxa was increased in metastatic compared to primary melanomas, and in thick primaries compared to thin primaries. Inhibition of oncogenic BRAFV600E or MEK downregulated Noxa, whereas activation of MEK/ERK caused its upregulation. In addition, introduction of BRAFV600E increased Noxa expression in melanocytes. Upregulation of Noxa was due to a transcriptional increase mediated by cAMP responsive element binding protein, activation of which was also increased by MEK/ERK signaling in melanoma cells. Significantly, Noxa appeared necessary for constitutive activation of autophagy, albeit at low levels, by MEK/ERK in melanoma cells. Furthermore, it was required for autophagy activation that delayed apoptosis in melanoma cells undergoing nutrient deprivation. These results reveal that oncogenic activation of MEK/ERK drives Noxa expression to promote autophagy, and suggest that Noxa has an indirect anti-apoptosis role in melanoma cells under nutrient starvation conditions.

Guo S.T.,Shanxi Cancer Hospital and Institute | Jiang C.C.,University of Newcastle | Jiang C.C.,Hunter Medical Research Institute | Wang G.P.,Shanxi Cancer Hospital and Institute | And 14 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2013

Past studies have shown that amplified insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/IGF1 receptor (IGF1-R) signalling has an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development, progression and resistance to treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that downregulation of microRNA-497 (miR-497) as a result of DNA copy number reduction is involved in upregulation of IGF1-R in CRC cells. MiR-497 and miR-195 of the miR-15/16/195/424/497 family that share the same 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) binding seed sequence and are predicted to target IGF1-R were concurrently downregulated in the majority of CRC tissues relative to paired adjacent normal mucosa. However, only overexpression of miR-497 led to suppression of the IGF1-R 3′UTR activity and downregulation of the endogenous IGF1-R protein in CRC cells. This was associated with inhibition of cell survival, proliferation and invasion, and increased sensitivity to apoptosis induced by various stimuli including the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and the death ligand tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. The biological effect of miR-497 on CRC cells was largely mediated by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signalling, as overexpression of an active form of Akt reversed its impact on cell survival and proliferation, recapitulating the effect of overexpression of IGF1-R. Downregulation of miR-497 and miR-195 appeared to associate with copy number loss of a segment of chromosome 17p13.1, where these miRs are located at proximity. Similarly to miR-195, the members of the same miR family, miR-424 that was upregulated, and miR-15a, miR-15b and miR-16 that were unaltered in expression in CRC tissues compared with paired adjacent normal mucosa, did not appear to have a role in regulating the expression of IGF1-R. Taken together, these results identify downregulation of miR-497 as an important mechanism of upregulation of IGF1-R in CRC cells that contributes to malignancy of CRC. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Croft A.,University of Newcastle | Croft A.,Calvary Materials Newcastle Materials Hospital | Tay K.H.,University of Newcastle | Boyd S.C.,University of Sydney | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2014

Cancer cells commonly undergo chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, to which the cells have to adapt for survival and proliferation. We report here that in melanoma cells intrinsic activation of the ER stress response/unfolded protein response (UPR) is, at least in part, caused by increased outputs of protein synthesis driven by oncogenic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) and promotes proliferation and protects against apoptosis induced by acute ER stress. Inhibition of oncogenic BRAF V600E or MEK-attenuated activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) signaling of the UPR in melanoma cells. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and nascent protein synthesis and was recapitulated by knockdown of eIF4E. In line with this, introduction of BRAF V600E into melanocytes led to increases in eIF4E phosphorylation and protein production and triggered activation of the UPR. Similar to knockdown of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inhibition of XBP1 decelerated melanoma cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis induced by the pharmacological ER stress inducers tunicamycin and thapasigargin. Collectively, these results reveal that potentiation of adaptation to chronic ER stress is another mechanism by which oncogenic activation of the MEK/ERK pathway promotes the pathogenesis of melanoma. © 2014 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Lai F.,University of Newcastle | Guo S.T.,Shanxi Cancer Hospital and Institute | Jin L.,University of Newcastle | Jiang C.C.,University of Newcastle | And 11 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

Past studies have shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) and mutant BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitors synergistically kill melanoma cells with activating mutations in BRAF. However, the mechanism(s) involved remains less understood. Here, we report that combinations of HDAC and BRAF inhibitors kill BRAFV600E melanoma cells by induction of necrosis. Cotreatment with the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) or panobinostat (LBH589) and the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 activated the caspase cascade, but caspases appeared dispensable for killing, in that inhibition of caspases did not invariably block induction of cell death. The majority of dying cells acquired propidium iodide positivity instantly when they became positive for Annexin V, suggesting induction of necrosis. This was supported by caspase-independent release of high-mobility group protein B1, and further consolidated by rupture of the plasma membrane and loss of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents, as manifested by transmission electron microscopic analysis. Of note, neither the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 nor the small interference RNA (siRNA) knockdown of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) inhibited cell death, suggesting that RIPK1 and RIPK3 do not contribute to induction of necrosis by combinations of HDAC and BRAF inhibitors in BRAFV600E melanoma cells. Significantly, SAHA and the clinically available BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib cooperatively inhibited BRA FV600E melanoma xenograft growth in a mouse model even when caspase-3 was inhibited. Taken together, these results indicate that cotreatment with HDAC and BRAF inhibitors can bypass canonical cell death pathways to kill melanoma cells, which may be of therapeutic advantage in the treatment of melanoma. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

PubMed | Shanxi Medical University and Shanxi Cancer Hospital and Institute
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Techniques in coloproctology | Year: 2016

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and local excision (LE) are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat early rectal cancer. There are no current guidelines or consensus on the optimal treatment strategy for these lesions. A systematic review was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of ESD and LE. A meta-analysis was conducted following all aspects of the Cochrane Handbook for systematic reviews and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. To perform the statistical analysis, the odds ratio (OR) was used for categorical variables and the weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous variables. Four studies, involving a total of 307 patients, were identified. The length of hospital stay was longer in the group of patients undergoing LE [weighted mean difference (WMD) -1.94; 95% CI -2.85 to -1.02; p < 0.0001]. The combined results of the individual studies showed no significant differences as regards en-bloc resection rate (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.25-2.70; p = 0.74), R0 resection rate (OR 1.53; 95% CI 0.62-3.73; p = 0.35), overall complication rate (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.26-1.69; p = 0.40), and tumor size (WMD 0.57; 95% CI -3.64 to 4.78; p = 0.79) between ESD and LE. When adopting the fixed effect model which takes into account the study size, ESD was associated with a lower recurrence rate than LE (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.03-0.87; p = 0.03), while with the random-effect model the difference was not significant (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.02-2.04; p = 0.17). Over the last decade improvements in technology have improved the technical feasibility of rectal ESD. In specialized centers with highly experienced endoscopists, ESD can provide high-quality en-bloc excision of rectal neoplasms equivalent to traditional local excision.

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